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Summary

The study assessed adoption of rice post-harvest technologies among smallholder farmers in Osun State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents through a structured interview schedule using a multistage sampling procedure. Percentages, means, Chi-square and correlation were used to analyse the data and draw inferences. The results show that about 52.5% of the respondents had favourable perception, while 47.5% had unfavourable perception towards adoption of the rice post-harvest technologies. Rice milling (mean=4.54) and harvesting matured panicles at the right time (mean=4.47) ranked highest among the adopted post-harvest technologies, while majority (65%) of the respondents adopted the rice post-harvest technologies at moderate level and 35% had high level of adoption. Inadequate capital (mean=1.75) and poor extension contacts (mean=1.67) were the major constraints associated with the adoption. Also, there was significant association between sex (χ2= 38.174), marital status (χ2=32.85) and adoption of the rice post-harvest technologies, while age (r=-0.531), household size (r=0.414) and the quantity of rice produced (r=0.345) had significant relationship with adoption of the post-harvest rice technologies. There was moderate level of adoption among the farmers. Financial institutions, governments and non-governmental organisations should provide functional credit facilities and government should employ more extension agents to promote adoption of high-quality enhancing post-harvest technologies for sustainable rice production in Nigeria.

Summary

The beneficial effects of walnuts and walnut products on human health, due primarily to their rich polyphenolic content, have been appreciated as an empirical fact for centuries. The purpose of this study is to determine the polyphenolic contents of liqueurs made from the walnut selections ‘Rasna’ and ‘Sava’ and the walnut cultivar ‘Šampion’ (all harvested at three different times), as well as the polyphenolic contents of their green husks. The walnut liqueurs were prepared according to two traditional recipes using young walnut fruits. The highest antioxidant capacity was recorded in the liqueur made from the ‘Rasna’ walnut selection (89.94%), whereas the highest contents of phenols (83.28 mg GAE/g FW), flavonoids (0.83 mg QE/g FW) and proanthocyanidins were found in the liqueur made from the ‘Šampion’ cultivar (14.75 mg CE/g FW). The youngest ‘Rasna’ walnuts, harvested at the first experimental time point, exhibited the highest phenolic and tannin contents, whereas the highest flavonoid content was observed in the ‘Šampion’ cultivar. The biochemical results obtained indicate a decrease in the polyphenolic content of walnut fruits with their growth and development. Moreover, the polyphenolic profiles of the walnut liqueurs considered were found to be greatly affected by the method of preparation and the cultivar/selection of walnuts.

Summary

Organic agriculture has the potential to reduce the negative impacts of conventional agricultural practices and enhance rural economic development. Since research on Sri Lankan farmers’ attitude towards organic agriculture has been rare, this research aims to explore the farmers’ viewpoint on organic agriculture. Two main rural districts were purposely selected for this investigation since these districts have a high potential for organic agriculture. Two Divisional Secretariat (DS) divisions from each district and 75 farmers from the farming community of each DS division were randomly selected to form a sample of 300 farmers. Data were collected from July 2017 to April 2018 and analyzed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression. The results revealed that a majority of the farmers (74%) were well-aware of organic agriculture and agricultural extension programs, while training was the primary information source in both districts. As per the mean analysis, the farmers had a positive attitude towards health-related and environmental protection aspects. However, they had a negative attitude towards the complexity of organic agriculture and unavailability of a suitable market for organic products. Results of the binary logistic regression revealed that the education level of the farmers significantly affect their attitude towards organic agriculture. The availability of traditional knowledge and technology relevant to organic agriculture, favorable climatic condition, and some government support were the main potentials, while labor intensiveness was the main challenge. Thus, creating better marketing facilities for organic products, providing the required amenities for producing organic food, processing, and value addition will promote organic agriculture among more farmers, supporting sustainable development.

Summary

Sugar beet leaf spot, caused by the air-borne fungus Cercospora beticola Sacc., leads to a decrease in sugar beet leaf mass and the consequent regrowth of leaves based on exploiting the sugar reserves stored in the plant’s roots, thus ultimately resulting in lower yields and sugar contents of sugar beets. Azoxystrobin belongs to the group of QoI fungicides, which inhibit mitochondrial respiration by blocking cytochrome c reductase. The QoI fungicides are characterized by a very high risk of resistance interfering with their biological activity. For the purpose of testing the azoxystrobin sensitivity of the Cercospora beticola population found at the site of Rimski Šančevi, a collection of 84 isolates was assembled and tested for sensitivity to azoxystrobin by measuring the mycelial growth on fungicide-amended media with the addition of SHAM. The results obtained indicate that none of the isolates tested exhibited complete sensitivity to azoxystrobin, 4% were found to have reduced sensitivity, 26% were moderately resistant and 70% were highly resistant. A higher proportion of resistant isolates recorded is associated with the loss of azoxystrobin biological efficacy at the experimental site.

Abstract

Practical domestic monitoring of the menstrual cycle requires measurements of urinary metabolites of reproductive hormones: oestrone glucuronide (E1G) and pregnanediol glucuronide (PdG). Data reported in the literature are expressed as (i) concentration, without or with either creatinine- or specific gravity correction, or (ii) excretion rates. This variation in such a fundamental issue prompts consideration of the relationships between the four measures. Because the menstrual cycle kinetics of E1G and PdG are complex, we consider measurements of urinary creatinine, urea, galactose, xylose and inulin which tend to be more stable. We show that uncorrected concentration measurements of these urinary analytes can be positively correlated, negatively correlated or uncorrelated with the serum concentration. Based on measurements of urinary creatinine concentrations, urinary specific gravity and creatinine excretion rates, we conclude that urinary analyte concentration are likely to be more reliable when creatinine-corrected rather than corrected using specific gravity, but that both are less reliable than measurements of the excretion rate. This has implications for the quantitation of any urinary analyte, but especially for the monitoring of the menstrual cycle in which changes in E1G and PdG from one day to the next can be physiologically significant for a woman monitoring her fertility.

Abstract

Background: Historically, the Rod of Asclepius is considered as the correct symbol of Medicine. Unfortunately, many medical/health institutions in the world have erroneously interchanged the Rod of Asclepius symbol with erroneous symbols (e.g. Caduceus) to depict Medicine. This study aims to assess the official logos (i.e. institutional symbols) of university teaching hospitals in Nigeria and determine if these logos actually depict the true symbol of Medicine.

Methods: This study was a cross-sectional online survey of teaching hospitals in Nigeria on their official logos. A total of 40,556 operating hospitals and clinics in Nigeria were identified. After systematic screening, a total of 35 hospitals were identified as university teaching hospitals and used for the survey. Official information about the geopolitical zone, ownership and official logo of the selected hospitals was obtained (via online and offline search). Data collected was analysed using SPSS version 22 software.

Results: Out of the 35 surveyed university teaching hospitals, only 7 did not have snake(s) as part of their official logo. However, out of the remaining 28 hospitals that have snake(s) as part of their official logos, only 57.1% (16/28) of them have only one snake in their logo. Exactly half of the surveyed hospitals having logos with two entwined snakes (i.e. Caduceus) were owned by the federal government. Bivariate analysis showed that there exists statistically significant relationship between the geopolitical zone where a hospital is situated and the number of entwined snakes indicated in their official logo (p-value=0.034).

Conclusion: This study shows that the correct symbol of Medicine is not universally indicated in the official logos of the university teaching hospitals in Nigeria.

Abstract

The problem of physiological gait stereotype restoration in patients with post-stroke central hemiparesis remains relevant to this day. This is primarily associated with high risk of falls in this category of patients. At this point, there is a wide variety of methods related to exercise treatment and robotised correction or restoration of impaired gait against the background of post-stroke hemiparesis. At the same time, the problem of management of talipes equinovarus associated with this syndrome remains quite complex and not completely solved. We have analysed existing methods of talipes equinovarus correction with different levels of evidentiality.

Abstract

Glial cells play a significant role in the link between the endocrine and nervous systems. Among hormones, thyroid hormones (THs) are critical for the regulation of development and differentiation of neurons and glial cells, and hence for development and function of the central nervous system (CNS). THs are transported into the CNS, metabolized in astrocytes and affect various cell types in the CNS including astrocyte itself. Since 3,3’,5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) is apparently released from astrocytes in the CNS, it is a typical example of glia-endocrine system.

The prevalence of thyroid disorders increases with age. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are reported to increase the risk of cognitive impairment or Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Therefore, understanding the neuroglial effects of THs may help to solve the problem why hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism may cause mental disorders or become a risk factor for cognitive impairment. In this review, THs are focused among wide variety of hormones related to brain function, and recent advancement in glioendocrine system is described.

Abstract

This article describes the United States Agency for International Development Transform: Primary Health Care Activity supported a twinning partnership strategy, which was implemented between districts (woredas) in the different performance categories. This study presents the details of the partnership and the result observed in health systems strengthening in Ethiopia. The twinning partnership strategy was implemented with six steps. The established relationship helps the health systems to build the skill and capacities of the health workforce at primary healthcare entities. Both partner woredas improved their performances through the established win-win relationship and institutionalized the characteristics of a learning organization.

Abstract

ABO blood group system discovery was an important step in development of such areas as transplantation and transfusion medicine. At the same time understanding of fundamental role of antigenic determinants in physiological functions maintenance and pathological conditions development remained unexplained for a long time. Today it is known that A and B antigens are widely represented not only on erythrocytes membrane but also on other cells and tissues: platelets, epithelial tissue, oral and spermal fluids. Earlier authors studied metabolic and coagulation profiles, as well as blood cells composition in clinically healthy individuals on more than 180,000 donations, thus revealing group-specific features for each blood group. The review provides synthesis of association of such pathological conditions as coronary heart disease, thromboembolic complications, tumors of various localizations, inflammatory and destructive oral diseases, psychiatric and some infectious diseases with the presence or absence of antigenic determinants A and B. 0 (I) blood group carriers are more resistant to development of diseases, excepting H. pylori-associated gastrointestinal diseases. Carriers of “antigenic” blood groups A (II), B (III), AB (IV) are more susceptible to infections, cardiovascular diseases, and oncological diseases. The data presented may contribute to a personalized patient approach formation, based on antigen-associated biological variability of various signs in norm and pathology.