SEARCH CONTENT

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 107 items :

  • Environmental Management x
  • Architecture and Design x
Clear All

Abstract

Road traffic noise has been recognized as a serious issue that affects the urban regions. Due to urbanization and industrialization, transportation in urban areas has increased. Traffic noise characteristics in cities belonging to a developing country like India are highly varied compared to developed nations because of its heterogeneous conditions. The objective of the research study is to assess noise pollution due to heterogeneous traffic conditions and the impact of horn honking due to un-authorized parked vehicles on the main roadside. Noise mapping has been done using the computer simulation model by taking various noise sources and noise propagation to the receiver point. Traffic volume, vehicular speed, noise levels, road geometry, un-authorized parking, and horn honking were measured on tier-II city roads in Surat, India. The study showed not so significant correlation between traffic volume, road geometry, vehicular speed and equivalent noise due to heterogeneous road traffic conditions. Further, analysis of traffic noise showed that horn honking due to un-authorized parked vehicles contributed an additional up to 11 dB (A), which is quite significant. The prediction models such as U.K’s CoRTN, U.S’s TNM, Germany’s RLS-90 and their modified versions have limited applicability for heterogeneity. Hence, the noise prediction models, which can be used for homogeneous road traffic conditions are not successfully applicable in heterogeneous road traffic conditions. In this research, a new horn honking correction factor is introduced with respect to unauthorized parked vehicles. The horn honking correction values can be integrated into noise model RLS-90, while assessing heterogeneous traffic conditions.

Abstract

Athens International Airport (A.I.A) is the first major transportation infrastructure in Greece with the participation of the private sector, a pioneer international Public-Private Partnership. Environmental protection is a priority, and AIA, is committed to protect the environment and preventing or lessening negative impacts, through a comprehensive Environmental Policy and Procedures. Within this framework, AIA has already carried out the study for Strategic Noise Map (SNM) and the Noise Action Plan (NAP) for the Aircraft Noise. According to the European Directive 49/2002 the study should be repeated every 5 years. This research article focuses on the comparative study for the latest SNMs 2017 & 2019 (ECAC Doc.29) and for 2019 (executed by the new methodology CNOSSOS-GR), for the respective traffic data 2016 & 2018, and presents the results of the acoustic model in order to create the Strategic Noise Maps for Lden & Lnight indicators. With a view to implementing the legislation, an analysis of aircraft mix for every year (except helicopters, military and other specific flights) was carried out in accordance with the categorisation provided for in the relevant recommendation of the Committee of 6 August 2003 and the European Commission adopted Directive 2015/996. The potential health effects were further analyzed using the World Health Organization (WHO’s) Disability Adjusted Life Year’s (DALY’s) metrics for aircraft noise in relation to the exposure of the population based on the results of alternative comparative Strategic Noise Maps. The aim of the study is to show how the combination of both the implementation of the European Directive 2002/49 and 2015/996 and the DALY approach is an analysis tool for the evaluation of the acoustic environment. As we can observe in the results, the overall findings are significantly lower in the case of SNM 2019 (executed by the new methodology CNOSSOS-GR) than in the others.

Abstract

Noise pollution has been rising as a critical issue in recent days particularly for the people living in urban areas. This study has been conducted to find out the effects of traffic induced noise on nearby residential building through 3D noise mapping with and without noise Barriers. Monitoring has been carried out at various densely populated preselected locations of Delhi, India. Thereafter, 3D noise mapping has been done using hourly average noise levels for the locations exposed with maximum noise. The developed 3D noise map shows the variation of noise level along X, Y and Z direction for all selected locations before and after installation of noise barriers. Moreover, the result also shows that exact assessment of noise impact is possible through 3D noise mapping, when a multistory building close to the source of noise is taken into consideration. This paper also elaborates the adequate height, distance and NRC value of noise barrier to reduce the effect of road traffic noise on nearby high rise building. Reduction pattern of noise level can easily be visualized and evaluated by using these maps. This type of study could support decision makers during adaptation of suitable remedial measures.

Abstract

Noise pollution is one of the main environmental stressors in urban areas. In particular, strong noise pollution can be experienced at nighttime in downtown areas with intense anthropic activities: here, dwellers may suffer from disturbance to their rest, which induces stress and – in turn – adverse effects on health.

Usually, local authorities implement actions to tackle noise pollution, e.g. limiting the time allowed for outdoor events. However, these measures are often inadequate because the noise annoyance comes directly by the shouting of people spending time outdoors till late night.

In this framework, this study proposes a procedure to optimize the shape of customized lightweight transparent noise screens that can be applied to façades in order to reduce noise disturbance in urban canyons. The case study of the “movida” area in the downtown of Marina di Ragusa (Southern Italy) is discussed to test the applicability of the proposed procedure.

The results of this analysis allow defining the shape and the size of the noise screens that minimize the noise annoyance perceived by residents. The proposed mitigation approach can be applied in cities affected by significant noise pollution.

Abstract

In the quest for the reduction of noise pollution, novel hybrid-electric or fully-electric power-trains promise to provide a substantial contribution. Especially closer to airfields, where acceptability issues tend to limit air operations with conventional fuel-burning engines, such novel power-trains allow to fly terminal maneuvers with a dramatically reduced impact on pollution. Considering the General Aviation (GA) field, where such new types of propulsion are more likely to gain a significant market share thanks to their favorable characteristics for this weight category, the reduction of the noise impact on ground may increase the infrastructural value of smaller airfields, often located in densely populated areas. This in turn would help in making novel power-train technologies economically advantageous at a system level. Despite these evident advantages, a methodology to quantify noise emissions of a novel type of power-train has not been identified yet – a fundamental step towards the assessment of the potential contribution of hybrid-electric or fully-electric aircraft to the global scenario of future aviation. This work introduces and discusses a possible procedure to provide such estimation. While mainly focused on the field of propeller-driven GA aircraft, the procedure presented herein can be easily scaled to cope with the specific features of heavier categories.

Abstract

Constant exposure to traffic noise pollution can have significant impact on human health and well being. Occupants of high-rise buildings along noisy traffic arteries are severely affected. In an attempt to contribute to noise protection design of prospective high-rise buildings, traffic noise measurements and prediction using the CRTN (calculation of road traffic noise) model, were made along the façade of a high-rise building in central Athens. The aim was to test the accuracy of this model in predicting the vertical distribution (mapping) of traffic noise along such building façades, under the local urban characteristics of the Mediterranean capital. The predicted and measured noise levels were found to be highly coherent with each other, and their vertical distribution pattern, by and large, confirmed findings from earlier studies. Nevertheless, the predicted values had a tendency of underestimation, with a mean difference −2.2 dB(A) with reference to measured values. It is considered that this underestimation is associated mainly with a newly proposed feature of urban morphology, namely (local) geo-morphology. By and large, it can be inferred that the CRTN model is a useful tool, suitable for the prediction of traffic noise along high-rise building façades during their planning and design stage. The results represent a further step towards more general application of this model, as well as a contribution to the use of this model considering a wider number of urban features.

Abstract

In this study, some measurements like the current, voltage and hydrogen flow based on the fuel cell are investigated in spectral-domain as well as their time-domain representations and then, their spectral properties are extracted. Besides this, taking the simplified transfer function approach into account, which is defined between the hydrogen flow and current of the cell as an input-output pair, more detailed results are obtained. Therefore, the spectral parts of the fuel cell are put into categories under the impacts coming from the process, measurement circuits and digitizers. The process noise to be defined at very small frequencies (<15 Hz) can be explained as the effects of the various physical and chemical interactions emerging in the fuel cell. Moreover, this study analysed the spectral characteristics of fuel cells for current, voltage and hydrogen flow in detail.

Abstract

This study compares metrics for environmental noise diagnosis in schools at airport vicinity. The goal is to analyze and identify the most suitable criteria for scaling aircraft noise impact over schools, during landing and take-off operations. A Brazilian case study is conducted, based on the noise mapping and sound level verification. The day-night average noise level (DNL) and the time above limit (TA) are investigated using acoustic simulation and noise mapping and in order to identify the critical receivers. Results of DNL and TA for two schools at airport surroundings show that the criteria adopted by the municipal and airport authorities to describe the airport noise are unsatisfactory and do not reflect the intermittent behavior of this type of noise. It was verified that individual receiver analysis, based on noise interruptions thought TA parameter is more suitable for evaluation of noise impact over schools at airport vicinity.

Eine Aufgabe für Gartendenkmalpflege, Wissenschaft und Gesellschaft