We derive risk-neutral probability densities for future euro/Swiss franc exchange rates as implied by option prices. We find that the credibility of the Swiss franc floor decreased somewhat as the spot exchange rate approached the lower bound of 1.20 CHF per euro. We also compare the forecasting performance of a random walk benchmark model with an error-correction model (ECM) augmented with option-implied break probabilities of breaching the currency floor. We find some evidence that the augmented ECM has an informational advantage over the random walk when using one-month break probabilities. But we find that one-month option-implied densities cannot predict the entire range of exchange rate realizations.
The asymmetric short – and long-run relationships between BRICS stock markets are examined using monthly stock price data from January 2001 through December 2014. The asymmetric co-integration analysis confirms the presence of a long-run association between the BRICS stock markets; where, the speed of adjustment to the negative shocks is higher and statistically significant for the Brazil-India and China-India pairs, which indicates quick adjustment of stock prices to bad news compared to good news. Conversely, the speed of adjustment for Indian and South African stock markets is higher for positive shocks, while the relationship between the stock markets pair of Russia and South Africa is linear. The results of asymmetric error correction model (AECM) reveal evidence of bidirectional causality between China-India, India-South Africa and South Africa-Russia, while unidirectional causality runs from the Indian to Brazilian stock market. Thus, we can safely conclude that the Indian stock market has long-run and short-run relationships with most of the other stock markets. This suggests that investors should pay attention to the Indian stock market when investing in BRICS stock markets.
The spatial lag model (SLM) has been widely studied in the literature for spatialised data modeling in various disciplines such as geography, economics, demography, regional sciences, etc. This is an extension of the classical linear model that takes into account the proximity of spatial units in modeling. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian estimation of the functional spatial lag (FSLM) model. The Bayesian MCMC technique is used as a method of estimation for the parameters of the model. A simulation study is conducted in order to compare the results of the Bayesian functional spatial lag model with the functional spatial lag model and the functional linear model. As an illustration, the proposed Bayesian functional spatial lag model is used to establish a relationship between the unemployment rate and the curves of illiteracy rate observed in the 45 departments of Senegal.
This paper empirically investigates the dynamics between budget deficit and government debt in the U.S. using two different measures of the budget deficit: the current budget deficit and cyclically-adjusted budget deficit. A threshold Vector autoregression (VAR) model is estimated to explore the dynamics in different regimes using quarterly data from 1947:Q1 to 2017:Q3. The specification test rejects a linear VAR model against the threshold VAR. When we use the current budget deficit, regime 1 resemble governments prioritize minimizing budget deficit and debt, whereas, regime 2 resemble otherwise. When we use the cyclically adjusted budget deficit, regime 1 resemble economic expansions, whereas, regime 2 resemble recessions. The impulse responses show evidence of asymmetry and counter-cyclicality. The impulse responses also indicate that an increase in the debt dictate the government’s response towards minimizing the budget deficit and tend to prioritize budget deficit less when the economy expands.
Trading volume changes based on market microstructure will impact asset prices, which will lead to transaction price changes. Based on the extended Hasbrouck–Foster–Viswanathan (HFV) model, we study the statistical characteristics of daily permanent price impact and daily temporary price impact using high-frequency data from Chinese Stock Markets. We estimate this model using tick-by-tick data for 16 selected stocks that are traded on the Shanghai Stock Exchange. We find the following: (1) the time series of both the permanent price impact and temporary price impact exist in stationarity and long-term memory; (2) there is a strong correlation between the permanent price impact among assets, while the correlation coefficient of the temporary price impact is generally weak; (3) the time interval has no significant influence on the trade volume and the price change at the tick frequency, which means that it is not necessary to take into account the time interval between adjacent transaction in high-frequency trading; and (4) the bid-ask spread is an effective factor to explain trading price change, but has no significant impact on trade volume.
The Hurst exponent is the simplest numerical summary of self-similar long-range dependent stochastic processes. We consider the estimation of Hurst exponent in long-range dependent curve time series. Our estimation method begins by constructing an estimate of the long-run covariance function, which we use, via dynamic functional principal component analysis, in estimating the orthonormal functions spanning the dominant sub-space of functional time series. Within the context of functional autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average (ARFIMA) models, we compare finite-sample bias, variance and mean square error among some time- and frequency-domain Hurst exponent estimators and make our recommendations.