Sustainable integrated sewerage system planning leads to sewerage systems that withstand current and future requirements and protect resources for future generations. Therefore, the right technical measures must be identified. In this chapter, potential measures for sewerage systems as well as their effects and approaches for their evaluation are described, e. g., real time control and decentralized stormwater retention and treatment systems in urban drainage systems. The measures are classified into three planning levels: basic, advanced, and smart. This can help to identify if a measure is suitable for the current and possible future targets.
Today, we can use computers to automate the process of optimization and we are able to analyze millions of different solutions in a very short time in order to choose the best one. With this amazing calculating power we can let our design be heavily influenced by the advice that the computer gives us, so that the processes known as Design and Optimization can almost be defined as one single (scientific) field. Therefore, we are entering a new era, where machines/computers will not be tools any more. Instead they will be our advisers. This is something that has not yet been pursued in the world of design and structural design. Using the examples from the architectural practice and research we will try to demonstrate that we have the tools and the knowledge necessary to make that step forward.
Fluvial hydrodynamic modeling has been widely used as a computational tool to estimate the hydrokinetic potential of downstream reservoirs of hydropower plants, i. e., taking advantage of the remaining energy. In that case, the design of the rotor diameter and velocity of hydrokinetics turbines are fundamental and depend on the depth and velocity of the river, respectively. Thus, the present study evaluated the potential of two hydropower plants (Ibitinga and Bariri) located in the Tietê River Basin, São Paulo state, Brazil. The velocities and depths were simulated using the Saint-Venant model. Data were collected from topo bathymetry to elaborate the terrain elevation model; substrate data to obtain the Manning coefficient; and flow and water level data for the boundary conditions. The model for the two hydropower plants was calibrated with observed and simulated flows rates. Velocities and depths of the two downstream reservoirs were simulated for the maximum, average, and minimum flows observed in the period between 2010 and 2014. The velocity results point to a greater hydrokinetic potential for Ibitinga, since their maximum velocities, for the simulated flows, varied between 1.468 m/s (minimum flow) and 2.703 m/s (maximum flow). While the velocities for Bariri ranged from 0.949 m/s to 2.314 m/s. The good results achieved through the methodology applied suggest evaluation of the remaining energy of other hydropower plants.
It is commonplace that the structural system conception and its preliminary design should be in the early stages of the design of the architectural building shape. Some studies suggest pre-sizing rules from percentage relations between the cross sectional structural member dimension and system span length. In this study, a parametric structural design tool of a tridimensional reinforced concrete rigid frame structure is proposed, with beams columns and flat slabs, submitted to overloads in addition to the self weight. In this proposal, there is a hybrid modeling that starts from a 3D structural geometry model, which may or may not be parametric, checking the cross sectional dimensions by code standards, and generating the 3D structure pre-sized model, all of it built in a CAD environment. The whole process can be summarized to capture the critical internal forces and maximum structural displacements from the structural model with cross sections input and use them to verify if these cross sections are sufficient according the structural limit states, as dictated by structural code standards. After ULS and SLS checking, with this design tool there is fully-looped automatic designed structural modeling that delivers a structural model with designed cross sections. The input data set in parameterization by the user are the characteristic strength of the concrete, the reinforcement ratio of the column, the limit for displacement on beams and slabs, the value of live loads on the slab and dead loads on beams, the span length of the floor system, the distance between floors, and the number of 3D frame horizontal basic units. As a product, a 3D geometric structural frame model is obtained with the depths of the beams and columns, updated in real time, according to changes in input data. This generative algorithm interactively gives a 3D frame automatically designed from a definition of architectural space requirements, which is probably useful for design professionals and also for architectural design classes in the context of the early buildings design stages concept that would be applied here in modular reinforced concrete rigid frames. Beyond this, this proposed code can be used for any reinforced concrete structure model with slabs, beams, and columns, once this algorithm has decoupled the geometric model algorithm from the whole one. On the other hand, this proposed parametric auto-design structural model could be within a BIM and Optioneering design tool as an interoperability feature on an integrative design scenario.
We are currently witnessing a transition from the age of mass produc- tion to a world of personalized manufacturing. The transition is enabled by the widespread availability of manufacturing devices that facilitate rapid customiza- tion and fabrication. Although there has been significant progress in the develop- ment of manufacturing devices recently, software that allows users to intuitively create digital content for physical production is largely underdeveloped. This shows a need for computational models that support a new way of intuitive design, efficient representation, and simulation of physically producible objects beyond the scope of architecture and construction industry. In recent years, there has been a growing computer graphics community advancing this topic. This report provides a computer graphics perspective of recent research publications that have direct or indirect influence on the area of digital manufacturing. As underlying fundamentals, recent developments are classified in terms of shape, appearance, physically based simulation, and kinematics that are important aspects when designing digital content for fabrication. This survey is an overview of existing solutions of the computer graphics community; it highlights recent research developments, provides a compass for new directions, and should serve as motivation and inspiration for interdisciplinary solutions and digital manufacturing research problems.
One of the characteristics of eclectic architecture is the abundance of façade ornaments with an intricate geometry. This complexity raises issues about their documentation and restoration. Those ornaments are made from different types of materials which necessitates different solutions when using new technologies to produce their copies. This work focuses on techniques for restoration of metal eclectic ornaments. Photogrammetry is used for documentation and capture of the 3D model of the geometric composition of cultural heritage buildings elements to be used in the restoration project. With the digital models, digital fabrication techniques are applied as support to intervention projects and restoration of metal ornaments. Tests are performed using a 3D printer and a CNC machine for production of a wax piece to be used in the casting process. Finally, the techniques are compared, indicating their advantages and disadvantages.
Globally, there remains a great deficit in the supply with drinking water of good quality and sufficient quantity. This unacceptable situation hinders individual development and a decent daily life in many parts of the world. Especially, rural regions and decentralized sub-urban quarters in newly industrialized countries (NICs) and in developing countries are affected. To meet these challenges, a new, innovative, automated, mobile UF/RO water treatment pilot plant for decentralized applications was developed. Acting as an example for many NICs, the empirical investigations and test runs were undertaken in the Brazilian province of Minas Gerais. In this chapter, the economic feasibility of the pilot plant under local circumstances is investigated based on the technological pilot plant set up and local test run results. Four different technological versions are economically assessed and compared to each other. The findings give valuable information for the development and feasibility of innovative, advanced water treatment systems from an economic point of view.
The ongoing development towards the introduction of cyber-physical systems will create changes in work area design in manufacturing and logistics. Examples are highly computerized tools or new tasks due to a changed allocation of work tasks between humans and machines. Hence, the success of the utilization of the potential enabled by cyber-physical production systems highly depends on to what extent they are designed for humans. Therefore, an integrated system design that includes human factors at an early design stage is required. This work is intended to serve as a starting point for the development of designto- human factors for cyber-physical production systems. On the basis of the present state-of-the-art of relevant scientific research a hypothetical model is developed, which provides work area design principles with regard to job performance in cyber-physical production systems. We use an interdisciplinary approach consisting of research and findings from human factors, ergonomics, engineering, and work psychology in connection with engineering goals. Finally, the findings are transferred into a framework for interested applicators.