The relative and absolute sea-level patterns in the five LTT tide gauge stations of Oceania, Fremantle, and Sydney in Australia, Auckland, and Dunedin in New Zealand, and Honolulu in the Hawaii Islands, United States of America, are analyzed first based on tide gauge and GPS time series. The average relative rate of rise is +1.306 mm/yr., the average acceleration is +0.00490 mm/yr2, and the average absolute rate of rise is +0.125 mm/yr. This result is consistent with the result for Japan and the West Coast of the Americas. All the LTT tide gauges of the Pacific consistently show a small sea-level rise, with a significant contribution by subsidence, and negligible acceleration. This result is well-matched by the land increase, rather than shrinking, of the Pacific atolls’ islands recently highlighted by other researchers. Two case studies for locations where there are no LTT tide gauges are then provided. In Tuvalu, over the short time window 1977 to present, the relative rate of rise is +1.902 mm/yr., biased by low ESO water levels, and subsidence, but the absolute rate of rise is +0.157 mm/yr. In Adelaide, the relative rate of rise of the sea level is less than 2.3 mm/yr. with an overwhelming contribution by subsidence of 2.1 mm/yr. The thermosteric effect is thus less than 0.2 mm/yr. The sea-level acceleration is also small negative in Adelaide, −0.01936 mm/yr2.
The unsteady convective boundary layer flow of a nanofluid along a permeable shrinking/stretching plate under suction and second-order slip effects has been developed. Buongiorno’s two-component nonhomogeneous equilibrium model is implemented to take the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis into consideration. It can be emphasized that, our two-phase nanofluid model along with slip concentration at the wall shows better physical aspects relative to taking the constant volume concentration at the wall. The similarity transformation method (STM), allows us to reducing nonlinear governing PDEs to nonlinear dimensionless ODEs, before being solved numerically by employing the Keller-box method (KBM). The graphical results portray the effects of model parameters on boundary layer behavior. Moreover, results validation has been demonstrated as the skin friction and the reduced Nusselt number. We understand shrinking plate case is a key factor affecting non-uniqueness of the solutions and the range of the shrinking parameter for which the solution exists, increases with the first order slip parameter, the absolute value of the second order slip parameter as well as the transpiration rate parameter. Besides, the second-order slip at the interface decreases the rate of heat transfer in a nanofluid. Finally, the analysis for no-slip and first-order slip boundary conditions can also be retrieved as special cases of the present model.
A numerical investigation into the effect of temperature-dependent fluid properties on the thin film flow along an inclined heated plate is presented. The equations governing the coupled flow and heat transfer are formulated based on couple stress non-Newtonian model. Solutions of the coupled nonlinear differential equations are tackled numerically by using the combination of shooting method and the Fehlberg-Runge-Kutta method. Findings are presented graphically and discussed precisely.
The initial-boundary value problem for a pseudo-parabolic equation exhibiting initial layer is considered. For solving this problem numerically independence of the perturbation parameter, we propose a difference scheme which consists of the implicit-Euler method for the time derivative and a central difference method for the spatial derivative on uniform mesh. The time domain is discretized with a nonuniform grid generated by equidistributing a positive monitor function. The performance of the numerical scheme is tested which confirms the expected behavior of the method. The existing method is compared with other methods available in the recent literature.
Train safety and operational efficiency can be improved by investigating the dynamics of the train under varying conditions. Longitudinal train dynamics (LTD) simulations performed for such purposes, usually by utilising a nonlinear time-domain model. This paper covers two modes of LTD results corresponding to the time domain and frequency domain analysis. Time-domain solutions are essential to evaluate the full response used for parameter optimisation and controller design studies while frequency domain solutions can provide significant but straightforward clues regarding system dynamics. An advanced draft gear model, which works under a four-stage process is constructed considering all structural components, geometric relationships, friction modelling and dynamic characteristics such as hysteresis, stiffening, state transition, locked unloading, softening. Then, this model is parametrically reduced and implemented into an LTD simulation. The simulation in the time domain is conducted assuming a locomotive connected with a nine wagon via “ode3” fixed-step solver. The transfer function among the first wagon acceleration (output) and the locomotive force (input) estimated through system identification methodology. Then, the identification results interpreted by investigating step-response characteristic and best response giving parameter set is selected. Next, the modal and spectral analysis performed to reveal the behaviour of the in-train forces and the effects of vibration. This paper discusses a reliable methodology for the longitudinal dynamic analysis of the multi-bodied train in time and frequency domain and clarifies in-train vibration behaviour under the existence of sophisticated draft gear.
This article investigates the time-dependent MHD heat transfer flow of Jeffrey fluid from a stretching sheet, the topic significance to non-Newtonian viscoelastic material processing. Using similarity transformations, the governing coupled non-linear PDE’s are remodel into ODE’s with suitable free stream and wall boundary conditions. The developed non-dimensional non-linear problem is revealed to be analysed by several key thermosphysical and rheological parameters, namely, Jeffrey fluid parameter (λ), Deborah number (β), Prandtl number (Pr), buoyancy parameter (ξ), magnetic parameter (M) and unsteadiness parameter (A). The semi-exact differential transform technique is applied to elucidate the coupled nonlinear governing equation of non-Newtonian Jeffrey fluid problem. Also, the solution is validated with numerical results attained via the MATLAB bvp4c function. Excellent accurateness is attained through the DTM approach. Further validation with available consequences from the existing literature is incorporated. The results indicate that fluid velocity and temperature are boosted with increasing Deborah number and stretching parameter however it shows a decreasing trend with Jeffrey fluid parameter and convection parameter. It also shows when augmenting the magnetic parameter which reduces the flow and increases the thickness of the boundary layer.
Equipment performance improvement in a wide range of working conditions is one of the major goals of aerodynamics. This goal can be achieved by the deformation of the object being examined or by using flow control techniques in active or inactive modes. In different researches, how to change the development ratio on the semi-confined space with input jet system is surveyed. In this study, two-dimensional simulation of the flow has been investigated in three-jet laminar flow in a semi-confined space. To determine the effective and optimal mixing in a laminar flow, critical Reynolds numbers were determined to distinguish when the flow in the channel from a steady-state symmetric flowformed downstream recirculation and ultimately transient flow. To better understand the flow characteristics, the simulations were changed at a fixed jet spacing (input jets distance to height of space ratio). Also, in this paper, for comparison, four jets were considered. Based on the results, it was observed that in all cases, mixing occurred in the space between three jets. Placing the jet along the walls of the semi-confined space allows the best combination, and increase in the distance between the first and third jets and reduction of the particle coefficient caused to reach the critical Reynolds number faster and, as a result, mixing in a laminar flow with geometric changes of the semi-confined space.
In this work, we discuss a fractional model of a flow equation in a simple pipeline. Pipeline narrowing is a crucial aspect in drinking water distribution processes, sewage system and in oil-well schemes. The solution of the mathematical model is determined with the aid of the Sumudu transform and finite Hankel transform. The results derived in the current study are in compact and graceful forms in terms of the Mittag-Leffler type function, which are convenient for numerical and theoretical evaluation.
The paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the stress field and selected triaxiality parameters near the crack tip for C(T) specimen dominated by the plane strain state using the finite element method. It includes some theoretical information about elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, the basics of the FEM modeling and presentation of the numerical results. The FEM analysis includes calculations with large strain assumptions. The influence of the external load and crack length is discussed. Additional elements of the paper are a qualitative assessment of the size of plastic zones and the crack tip opening displacement.