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The Trypillia Mega-Sites of the Ukrainian Forest-Steppe

Zusammenfassung

Die Cougnac-Höhle ist nicht nur eine der ältesten und am längsten genutzten Kultstätten der Menschheit (25.000–14.000 BP), sondern auch jenes Heiligtum, dessen Gemälde die animistischen Glaubensvorstellungen des Jungpaläolithikums deutlich vor Augen führen. Durch präzise ikonografische Bildanalysen unterscheidet der Beitrag zwischen den mythischen Darstellungen der Glaubensinhalte, den kultischen Repräsentationen der Magier, den Chiffren der Sexualsimulation sowie den magischen Riten, um alsdann deren wechselseitige Bezüge herauszuarbeiten. Dies geschieht anhand des etwa 30 m langen Frieses von Cougnac, der eine sequenzielle Bildgeschichte erzählt. Die Geschichte handelt von zwei Ermordeten, die sich reinkarnieren; der eine in ein Mammut, der andere in einen Riesenhirsch. Begleitet werden ihre Seelenwanderungen von zwei Magiern, die mit zwei Hilfsgeistern, einem Hirsch und einem Vogel, durchs Totenreich fliegen. In der nachfolgenden Bildsequenz werden Felswandvulven von aviformen Zeichen umschwärmt, wobei die Sexualisierung der Felswand ein restituierendes Gegenstück zu den anfänglichen Mordszenen darstellt. Schließlich wurden die einzelnen Szenen sowie abschließend noch eine ganze Halle mit rituellen Fingerabdrücken markiert, womit die Adepten sich auf den Felswänden verewigten und dafür im Gegenzug das Mana der Felswand empfingen. Analysiert wird auch die sehr ähnliche Bildgeschichte der Mordszene von Pech-Merle. Der Beitrag schließt mit Betrachtungen zum Todesbewusstsein im Jungpaläolithikum sowie dessen Bedeutung für die conditio humana.

Zusammenfassung

In der Theiß-Region an der nördlichen Peripherie der südosteuropäischen Tellkulturen beobachten wir zwischen 5300 und 4450 v. u. Z. das Auftreten großer bevölkerungsreicher Siedlungen, die durch die Kombinationen unterschiedlicher Siedlungskomponenten, von Tells, Flachsiedlungen und Kreisgrabenanlagen gekennzeichnet sind. In diesem Beitrag ist die Entwicklung einer solchen Mehrkomponenten-Siedlung – Borđoš in der serbischen Vojvodina – rekonstruiert, basierend auf geophysikalischen Untersuchungen, Ausgrabungen, systematischen Oberflächenbegehungen und 14C-Datierungen. Zwischen 4850 und 4700 v. u. Z. wurde in Borđoš eine bereits länger existierende Tellsiedlung durch eine große Flachsiedlung ergänzt oder zeitweise ersetzt. Im Kontext ähnlicher Fundstellen aus dem Theiß-Gebiet und darüber hinaus interpretieren wir diese Dynamik als Ausdruck eines zeitweise verstärkten überregionalen Trends zu Bevölkerungsagglomeration zwischen etwa 4900 und 4700 v. u. Z. Hinsichtlich der Entwicklung von Tellsiedlungen und Flachsiedlungen zeichnen sich innerhalb des Theiß-Gebietes erhebliche regionale Unterschiede ab: Im südlichen Teil des Untersuchungsgebietes bilden Tells häufig die Keimzelle später wachsender komplexer Siedlungen. Dagegen stellen im Norden eher große Flachsiedlungen den Ausgangspunkt großer Siedlungen dar. Tells repräsentieren hier entweder räumliche Separierungen mit speziellen Funktionen oder stellen das Ergebnis einer länger andauernden Besiedlung in einem kleinen Teil der ursprünglichen Siedlungsfläche dar. Diese Größenreduzierung von Siedlungen oder teils ihre komplette Auflassung verstehen wir als Teil eines im Karpatenbecken und dem westlichen Balkan weiträumig sichtbaren Trends hin zu erheblich geringeren Bevölkerungsdichten und räumlich stärker verteilten Siedlungen, der nach 4700 v. u. Z. einsetzte.

Aus Tells- und Flachsiedlungskomponenten bestehende Großsiedlungen der Theiß-Region zeichnen sich durch eine große Diversität hinsichtlich ihrer Größe und räumlichen Konfiguration aus. In Borđoš beobachten wir das Auftreten eines in der Region bisher unbekannten zentripetalen Siedlungslayouts, in dem die Häuser auf einen zentralen Platz im Zentrum der Siedlung ausgerichtet sind. Wir interpretieren die neuartige Siedlungskonfiguration als das Ergebnis des Zusammenschlusses einer im Hinblick auf kulturellen Hintergrund, Identitäten und Netzwerkeinbindung sehr heterogenen Bevölkerung. Demnach können wir die Gruppierung der Häuser um einen zentralen Platz als Ausdruck einer sozialen Organisation verstehen, die in stärkerem Maße als bei Siedlungen mit parallelen Hausreihen auf der Aushandlung kommunaler Belange beruhte.

Zusammenfassung

In mehreren siedlungsarchäologischen Arbeiten wird die Frage aufgeworfen, welchen Abstand zwei Funde mindestens zueinander haben müssen, um zwei unterschiedliche Fundstellen zu denotieren. Seit den 1960er Jahren wird eine empirische Untersuchung zu diesem Thema gefordert. Dieser Beitrag greift die Debatte auf und entwickelt unter Bezugnahme der deutschsprachigen und englischsprachigen Theoriedebatte um die Begriffe „Fundplatz“, „Fundstelle“, „site“ und „Siedlung“ eine Methode, die diese Frage zu beantworten sucht. Genutzt wird dafür eine Transektgrabung in Sachsen-Anhalt und die einzelnen dort aufgedeckten Befunde der Schnurkeramik, Frühbronzezeit, Spätbronzezeit und frühen Eisenzeit, um kulturspezifische Aussagen treffen zu können. Die Befunde werden im Sinne der off-site Archäologie als sich in der Landschaft kontinuierlich verbreitende Decke angesehen. Die Abgrenzung von Clustern, die Schätzung von Siedlungsgrößen und ihre Abstände zueinander werden mit Hilfe von Kerndichteschätzungen und kumulativen Entfernungen berechnet. Damit wird eine Methode der intra-site-Analyse auf die inter-site Ebene gehoben. Es zeigt sich, dass dies ein gewinnbringender Ansatz ist, der insbesondere bei Straßen- und Pipeline-Grabungen zum Einsatz kommen kann.

Summary

Lusatian Urnfield communities inhabiting Lubusz Land and western Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages occupy a unique position on the settlement map of the middle Oder basin. For nearly a thousand years, they acted as a kind of buffer between the buoyant Silesian centre, which had achieved its culture-making role thanks to direct exchange contacts with the Transcarpathian and Danubian-Alpine centres of the south, and West Pomeranian groups inspired from the west and northwest by the Nordic circle. The importance of Lubusz-Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) populations to the overall cultural picture of the territories on the banks of the Oder River can hardly be overestimated, so it is worth analysing this phenomenon in more detail. One of the significant cultural elements is the ceramic style. It can be a means of manifesting outside the identity of a group, the identity consolidated by a tradition functioning within this group. It is hard to imagine a relative standardisation of patterns in pottery produced over a certain area to be only the result of more or less random movement of female potters or small groups of people. The standardisation of material culture, resulting from the existence of a style, no doubt enhances homogeneity and stability in everyday life, and therefore can be regarded as a factor integrating neighbouring communities in territorial communities within a supra-local scale. In the Late Bronze Age, in Lubusz Land and western Greater Poland (Wielkopolska), one can notice the same stylistic tendencies in pottery manufacture (bossed style, Urad style, Late Bronze Age style) and in figural art in clay, and a similar repertoire of bronze objects, produced in local metallurgical workshops on the Oder.

The formation of Urnfield communities in Lubusz Land and western Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) was no doubt part of a broader process of cultural integration, of supra-local character, which was taking place throughout the upper and middle Oder basin at the transition of the Middle and Late Bronze Ages. This was a process of acculturation, based on the reception of the influx of new cultural contents along the River Oder from Lower Silesia and perhaps, although to a much smaller extent, from Lusatia and Saxony. The result was the cultural unification, for the first time to such an extent, of the western part of what is now Poland. The archaeological indicator of the discussed process was the appearance of large cremation cemeteries, with burials furnished with bossed pottery of the Silesia-Greater Polish type, representing a style typical of most of the middle Oder basin. Similar tendencies can be seen in bronze metallurgy, where a nearly complete unification of the repertoire of produced objects can be observed from the beginning of the Late Bronze Age. Here, however, the distributions of particular forms are much broader and encompass almost the entire western part of the Lusatian Urnfields. In Lubusz Land and western Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) the Late Bronze Age saw a very dynamic development of local bronze production, performed primarily within the Oder metallurgical centre. The result was a relatively high percentage of bronze artefacts in the cultural inventory of Urnfield populations inhabiting the region, most of them ultimately deposited in the many hoards buried during that period. A broad spectrum of manufactured designs, their notable standardisation, and the finds of durable casting moulds all seem to confirm that bronze metallurgy, along with pot-making, belonged to the most important areas of production performed by the population inhabiting the middle Oder basin at the conclusion of the 2nd and beginning of the 1st millennium BC, despite it having been carried out by a limited group of initiated specialists. The process of formation of Lusatian Urnfields in the middle Oder basin was most likely not complete before HaA2, and from the subsequent phase onwards one can notice a steady expansion of settled areas, resulting from intensive internal colonisation and the processes of acculturation. The dynamics of this phenomenon are best illustrated by newly established, vast cremation cemeteries, most of which were then continuously used at least until the close of the Bronze Age, with some persisting into the Early Iron Age. With the onset of the Early Iron Age, the Lubusz-Greater Polish territorial community of Lusatian Urnfields started to slowly disintegrate, a phenomenon explained by the adoption of a different model of Hallstatisation by these communities. In Lubusz Land, pottery of the Górzyce style (Göritzer Stil) appears, inspired more by Białowice (Billendorf) than Silesian patterns, while in western Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) ceramic workshops still maintained a close connection with the tendencies set by their Silesian neighbours, who at that time closely followed the East Hallstatt trends. The Lubusz-Greater Polish territorial community, which crystallised and developed throughout the entirety of the Late Bronze Age largely thanks to the unique role of the Oder River as a route of long-distance exchange and at the same time a culturally unifying element of the landscape, ceased to exist with the onset of the Early Iron Age, never to be reborn.

Abstract

This paper discusses seven finds of weaponry (one sword and six spearheads) from the Roman Period Przeworsk Culture cremation cemetery in Raczkowice, Częstochowa Distr., PL. This assemblage can generally be dated to Phases B2–C1. All the discussed artefacts went through the funeral pyre and two underwent additional treatment as part of funeral rites: the sword and one of the spearheads were bent. Metallographic examinations demonstrated that all these weapons were forged from single pieces of ferrous metal. However, in some of these the carbon content was high enough to allow for heat-treatment, thus making these artefacts potentially high-quality weapons. Regrettably, the cremation ceremony removed all possible traces of heat-treatment and it may have also caused partial decarburising of metal. On the basis of typological and technological traits it can be supposed that all the discussed weapons were of local Przeworsk Culture provenance.

Abstract

The necropolis at Malbork-Wielbark was excavated from 1927 to 1936 and 2008 to 2019. This burial ground is the eponymous site of the Wielbark culture. To date, over 2000 burials, both inhumation and cremation (pit and urn graves), have been recorded at this site, attesting to its continuous use from the Early Pre-Roman Iron Age (phase A1) to the early Migration Period (phase D1), with particular emphasis on the Roman Period. The cemetery site partially overlies and damages an earlier Iron Age settlement of the Pomeranian culture.

Laboratory analyses were carried out on 113 pottery sherds. The series of samples chosen for analysis reflected, as far as was possible, all relative chronological phases and vessel shapes. The pottery was analysed using a step by step strategy built on the results of MGR-analysis (i. e. the classification of samples based on their matrix type) and on a macroscopic assessment of clastic material. In addition, an estimation of chemical composition by portable energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) was available for each sample. After they had been classified, samples were selected for chemical analysis by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF), estimation of physical ceramic properties (open porosity, water absorption and apparent density), Kilb-Hennike analysis (K-H analysis), thin-section studies using a polarising microscope, a study of surface phenomena by RTI (Reflectance Transformation Imaging), thermal analysis (TG-DTG-DTA), X-ray diffraction analysis and functional properties analysis (water permeability and thermal shock resistance), as well as experimental estimation of magnetic properties.

The results of MGR-analysis carried out on ceramic samples taken from 113 potsherds revealed that all of the pottery was made from various non-calcareous clays with fine-grained iron compounds homogeneously distributed in the matrix. It was decided not to carry on determining/using MGR-groups, as nearly every sherd represents a different MGR-group. This means that these vessels were made during different production cycles. The differences in thermal behaviour between samples were attributed only to matrix-type groups. It can be concluded that 85 % of the total sherds were made from plastic raw materials of the same provenance, and that the same matrix-type groups occurred in all chronological phases. The percentage of vessels made of particular raw materials indicates a significant difference in the preferences of Pomeranian Culture potters and those of Pre-Roman Iron Age, Early Roman Period and those of the Late Roman Period, when one type of raw material disappears from use. This last period is also characterized by an increase in the number of vessels fired in a reducing atmosphere. Standardization is also evident in vessel-wall thickness, which falls within a narrow range of values, on the other hand combined with a large variety in grain sizes up to very large ones and with a wide range of open porosity values, which in turn points to a lack of care in the preparation of the ceramic body. Vessels that may have been non-local origin are noted in all chronological phases. Analysis of functional properties (water permeability and thermal shock resistance) revealed that the pottery deposited in graves included fully functional wares, such as cooking pots, as well as vessels intended solely as grave goods.

More than a few samples evidence the use of a slow-rotating potter’s wheel, and it is also possible that a template was used for forming vessel rims. However, there are very few examples of truly technologically advanced vessels. The technology is generally tailored to the desired type or form of vessel.

Abstract

The Addaura Cave, located on Monte Pellegrino – Palermo, Sicily, is known for its exquisite engravings dating between the end of the Epigravettian and the Mesolithic periods. The frieze shows a group of men arranged in a circle around two very controversial figures which have generated much scholarly debate. So far, the purely choreographic and musical aspect has been little investigated. From the examination of the position of legs and arms and the presence of particular ornaments it is possible to deduce that these figures are engaged in a dance whose purpose is most probably linked to the ceremonial sphere. The purpose of the present contribution is to return to the concreteness of gesture related to dance, describing the modalities and the possible rhythmic implications.