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Case Studies with Solved Examples
Series: De Gruyter STEM
Essentials for Chemical Engineers

Abstract

In order to develop the central gas flow in COREX shaft furnace, a new installment of center gas supply device (CGD) is designed. In this work, a coupled DEM–CFD model was employed to study the influence of CGD on gas–solid flow in COREX shaft furnace. The particle descending velocity, particle segregation behaviour, void distribution and gas distribution were investigated. The results show that the CGD affects the particles descending velocity remarkably as the burden falling down to the slot. Particle segregation can be observed under the inverse ‘V’ burden profile, and the influence of CGD on the particle segregation is unobvious on the whole, which causes the result that the voidage is slightly changed. Although the effect of CGD on solid flow is not significant, the gas flow in shaft furnace has an obvious change. Compared with the condition without CGD, in the case with CGD, the gas velocity is improved significantly, especially in the middle zone of the furnace, which further promotes the center gas distribution. Meanwhile, the pressure drop in the furnace with the installation of CGD is increased partly.

Abstract

TiO2 has many advantages, such as UV resistance, thermal stability, and antibacterial; the attention toward TiO2 composite materials (TCMs) is rapidly increasing in the protection of stone culture relics. An innovative rod-shaped TCM was synthesized in this study. The structure and morphology of TCM were studied by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The acid resistance, weather resistance, hydrophilicity, and photocatalytic performance of TCM had been investigated. The experimental results indicated that TCM has good protection effects. The stone sample treated with TCM has stronger acid resistance and weather resistance, better hydrophilicity, and more excellent photocatalytic activity compared with the untreated stone. More importantly, the stone treated with TCM has better acid resistance and weather resistance than that treated with normal shaped TiO2 materials of the previous study. This work describes an effective way to protect stone cultural relics.

Abstract

A novel system for contacting gases and liquids, suitable for many applications involving gas–liquid contact such as CO2 capture and brine desalination, has been simulated and experimentally validated. The system comprises a vertical vessel with gas and liquid ports and inert particles that enhance mixing and provide a high gas–liquid interfacial area. A low gas flow rate was statistically demonstrated and experimentally verified to be the optimum condition for CO2 capture and brine desalination; however, the gas velocity can have a considerable effect on the motion of inert particles inside the reactor. Uniform particles motion ensures good mixing within the reactor and hence efficient absorption and stripping process. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, namely Eulerian model, presented in this paper, will help demonstrate the effect of mixing particles at specific conditions on the gas and liquid velocities inside the reactor, gas and liquid volume distribution through reactor, and eddy viscosities stresses of the mixing particles. A mesh-independent study was conducted to demonstrate the independency of mesh structure and size on the output responses. A quasi-steady state was attained to ensure the stability and feasibility of the selected model. The assembled model exhibits remarkable applicability in determining the optimum mixing particles densities, volume ratios, and sizes to ensure best velocity distribution and gas spreading inside the reactor and accordingly enhance the associated chemical reactions.

Abstract

Phosphorus extraction from phosphorus rock was conducted by carbothermal reduction with silica and coke. The effects of reaction temperature, reaction time, coke excess coefficient, molar ratio of silicon–calcium, and phosphorus rock particle size on the phosphorus reduction rate were investigated by the response surface methodology (RSM). The central composite design (CCD) with five factors and five levels was used to explore the effects of variables’ interactions on the phosphorus reduction rate. The results showed that there are significant interactions between reaction time and temperature; reaction temperature and molar ratio of silicon–calcium; reaction temperature and phosphorus rock particle size; coke excess coefficient and molar ratio of silicon–calcium; and coke excess coefficient and phosphorus rock particle size. The optimum conditions in the experimental range are reaction time 92 min, reaction temperature 1340°C, coke excess coefficient 1.27, molar ratio of silicon–calcium 1.28, and phosphorus rock particle size 75–106 µm, which were derived from the quadratic statistic model. Under these conditions, the phosphorus reduction rate can reach 96.88%, which is close to the model prediction value 99.40%. The optimized carbothermal reduction conditions of phosphorus rock by the RSM are helpful to reduce the energy cost of thermal phosphoric acid process.

Abstract

Water hyacinth (WH) is a noxious weed. Its rapid growth can clog waterways, causing widespread ecological and environmental threats as well as power generation and irrigation issues. In the present study, water hyacinth was utilized as a precursor to synthesize multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using a simple chemical vapor deposition method. FESEM-EDS revealed that the synthesized MWCNTs had noodle-like, dense, and rough surfaces. TEM confirmed that MWCNTs had a bamboo-like structure with the diameter of 30–40 nm, and the wall thickness of approximately 7 nm. The interlayer distance was found to be approximately 0.34 by XRD. Raman spectra displayed three major bands of MWCNTS: D-band at 1,340 cm−1, G-band at 1,596 cm−1, and (D + G)-band between 2,783 and 2,953 cm−1. The ratio of the D-to-G band intensity was 0.94 ± 0.03, indicating that the synthesized MWCNTs had well degree of graphitization. Electrochemical measurement results of the prepared MWCNTs cathode for aluminum–air battery showed that MWCNTs exhibited higher energy capacity than commercial graphite. Collectively, this study shows that water hyacinth could be used effectively as a precursor for the production of MWCNTs, thus successfully converting the noxious weed into high value-added materials.

Abstract

Metal nanoparticles (MNPs) and metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) are used in numerous fields. The new nano-based entities are being strongly generated and incorporated into everyday personal care products, cosmetics, medicines, drug delivery, and clothing to impact industrial and manufacturing sectors, which means that nanomaterials commercialization and nano-assisted device will continuously grow. They can be prepared by many methods such as green synthesis and the conventional chemical synthesis methods. Green synthesis includes infinite accession to produce MNPs and MONPs with demanding properties. The structure–function relationships between nanomaterials and key information for life cycle evaluation lead to the production of high execution nanoscale materials that are gentle and environmentally friendly. Majority of plants have features as sustainable and renewable suppliers compared with microbes and enzymes, as they have the ability to pick up almost 75% of the light energy and transform it into chemical energy, contain chemicals like antioxidants and sugars, and play fundamental roles in the manufacture of nanoparticles. Plants considered the main factory for the green synthesis of MNPs and MONPs, and until now, different plant species have been used to study this, but the determined conditions should be taken into consideration to execute this preparation. In this study, we focus on the biosynthesis procedures to synthesize MNPs and MONPs, including comparison between green synthesis and the classical chemistry methods as well as the several new orientation of green synthesis of nanoparticles from different plant parts, especially plant leaf extracts. Plants with reducing compounds is the preferred choice for the synthesis of noble metals – metal ions can be reduced to the corresponding metals in the absence of any other chemicals under microwave irradiation conditions using benign solvent, water. Noble metals such as gold (Au), silver (Ag), platinum (Pt), and palladium (Pd) and other metals such as copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni), which are characterized by their optical, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, and chemical properties, leading to different technological applications. Plants with numerous reducing agents are suitable candidates for the manufacture of noble MNPs. The main purpose of this research is to give a background on green nanotechnology prospective evolution, pertinent concerns appeared related to the green synthesis of metal and metal oxide from plant extracts, nanoparticle formation mechanism, and the importance of flavonoids, vitamin B2, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and phenolic compounds in the MNP and MONP production. The traditional sorghum beers are produced in many countries in Africa, but diversity in the production process may depend on the geographic localization. These beers are very rich in calories; B-group vitamins including thiamine, folic acid, riboflavin, and nicotinic acid; and essential amino acids such as lysine. However, the Western beers are more attractive than the traditional sorghum beers. The traditional sorghum beers have poor hygienic quality, organoleptic variations, and shorter shelf life compared with the Western beers. Many research studies on traditional sorghum beers have been carried out and documented in several African countries, especially the microbiological and biochemical properties, the technologies used in the manufacture processes, and synthetic characteristics of African traditional sorghum beers (ikigage, merissa, doro, dolo, pito, amgba, and tchoukoutou). The excellent resources for the production of greener biomaterials are plants and considerable advances have been achieved in many fields such as biotechnology and gene transfer. The manufactured biological nanomaterials have a great application in the pharmaceutical industry such as novel pharmaceuticals preparation, drug delivery personification procedures, and production of functional nanodevices.

Abstract

Graphene oxide hydrosol was added dropwise to the surface of chitosan (CS) to successfully obtain graphene oxide/chitosan composite (GC). The composite material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The prepared adsorbent was used to simulate the static adsorption of copper, lead, and cadmium ions from 100 mL of 50 mg/L simulated wastewater samples. When the pH of the simulated wastewater is 6, initial dosage is 70 mg, adsorption time is 90 min, and temperature is 20°C; the adsorption capacities for copper, lead, and cadmium are 60.7, 48.7, and 32.3 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption and desorption cycle experiments show that the adsorption capacity of GC for copper ions can reach 86% of the initial adsorption capacity after ten cycles. The adsorption of lead ions on the composite conforms to the Freundlich adsorption isotherm model.