The subject of this study is the characterization of the rights and possible obligations of a spouse of a partner of a limited liability company. Participation in a company with limited liability belonging to one of the spouses sometimes enters into joint property, and in the event of the cessation of this communion, it is divided. The company’s share belongs to the inheritance property.
On 10th April 2010 Polish Air Force Tu-154 carrying the President of the Republic of Poland Mr. Lech Kaczyński, the First Lady Maria Kaczyńska and 92 other high Polish officials and members of the crew, crashed in Smolensk. Following the crash, Polish and Russian governments by series of acts and omissions agreed for the investigation procedure according to the Chicago Convention from 1944, nothwithstanding the existence of the binding Polish-Russian agreement from 1993 applicable to military aircrafts.
The main aim of the study is to analyze posthumous problems that concern the victims of the Smolensk disaster in the context of positive obligations of the state. The first element of the analysis will concern the standards of dealing with the bodies of disaster victims as soon as they occur. The second aspect will include the obligation to notify of death along with other obligations and information on victims. Then, issues related to the transport of corpses and the opening of coffins will be described, and finally the regulations regarding uninterrupted burial. The analysis of the above issue presented in the work will be carried out taking into account regional human rights protection standards and the ECtHR’s judicial practice. Both soft and hard law standards will be included in the analysis.
The main aim of this analysis is the synthetic reconstruction of the standards of European Court of Human Rights concerning the procedural aspect of the right to life, and particularly the obligation of conducting an effective investigation in the context of the Polish Air Force Tu-154 air crash in Smolensk on 10th April 2010.
The right to life in the system of the European Convention of Human Rights has a particular character. It derives mostly from its paramount importance. Due to the character of the sphere guaranteed by the right to life, the European Court of Human Rights notices the need of protecting it, both in material and procedural aspect. This is also the reason why article 2 of the ECHR is backed up by the wide variety of positive obligations.
The standards of article 2 of the ECHR and state’s positive obligations in this respect are fully applicable in relation to the air crash of the presidential Tu-154. State’s obligations focus on both material and procedural aspect of incident causing death. The air crash of Tu-154 concerns particularly the obligation to conduct adequate and effective official investigation. This obligation concerns both Polish and Russian authorities.
The main aim of this research is to analyse which obligations are applicable in respect of this particular air crash.
Smolensk Catastrophe is not only about the question of clarifying facts, but also the one of responsibility stemming from them on the grounds of European Convention on Human Rights, and being more precise from its art. 2: The right to life. The article includes both negative obligations, such as the prohibition of depriving an individual of life, as well as positive ones regarding the establishing of effective regulations in criminal law, providing legal and administrative procedures aiming at e.g. preventing the acts of life deprivation, including the ones referring to procedural obligations concerning the conduct of a proper and effective investigation. Responsibility is shared by both parties of the Convention: Russia and Poland. The first of them ought to be responsible for depriving the Catastrophe casualties of their lives, not only in the event of an attack and explosion, but also in the context of TU 154 renovation, the manner of organizing the visit, dividing it between 7th and 10th April 2010, the level of securing the quality of service at the North Smolensk airport, conducting the investigation and keeping the evidence (the wreck, black box, etc.), which made it impossible for Poland to conduct the effective investigation. Poland, on the other hand, is responsible for the lack of applying appropriate legal and administrative procedures, as well as preventive and controlling measures, inappropriate conduct of aviation investigation by Military Prosecutor Office, as well as the lack of an effective investigation indicated in art. 2 of the Convention. Poland ought to be held responsible also for the manner of organizing the visit. The responsibility of a state on the basis of the Convention includes detecting, pursuing and punishing individuals responsible for actions and cessations determined as a punishable offence of negligence and not fulfilling ones duties. Therefore there certainly was the situation of breaching the material and procedural obligations stemming from art. 2 of the Convention.
In search of international remedies for the investigation of the Tu-154M airplane crash of April 10, 2010, in Smolensk, Russia, standards of effective investigation under Article 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights are examined. Cases of airplane crashes and terrorist attacks are analyzed. Next, investigations of major international incidents of historic significance are examined. The case of UN Secretary General D. Hammarskjold killed in 1961 airplane crash is analyzed. Also, the investigation conducted by the International Commission of Inquiry for Lebanon on the assassination of Prime Minister Hariri is examined. Based on the above, recommendations are made for the most effective international investigation of the Smolensk crash.
Indication of conditions constituting necessity of modifications within the scope of the Constitution shall be considered while perceiving the leading role of the Constitution in Polish legal order. Constitutional regulations determine standards for the entire legal system of the Republic of Poland. It is also worth a while to consider the need for unambiguous determination of relations of constitutional norms, also with regard to the law of the European Union. Doubts appearing within the scope of systemic rules concern mainly regulations specifying the rule of division and balancing of powers. Actually, they consist in lacks with regard to organization of bodies of each of three powers. Another issue is improvement of solutions determining coexistence of government and local government administration within the broader scope of principles of uniformity of the state and decentralization of public power. The article presents an analysis related to the aforementioned issues.
The Icelandic constitutional movement was created to address and develop a new constitutional form based upon transparency, responsibility and participation. Taking into consideration the events, which took place in 2008 this expectation appeared more than legitimate. Furthermore, the quality of the debate, which took place within the civil society and in the cooperation between civil society and Constitutional Council, are very meaningful elements supporting a genuine possibility of change. The aim of implementing a participation-based constitution may lead to the diversification of the Icelandic project with respect to the typology of the existing constitution. This may produce as a result the development of new checks and balances. For this reason the development of public local services may be an opportunity to develop a social balance with respect of the constitution in force, as well as a living constitution starting from below. In this way the values purported by civil society may lead to higher levels of political freedom and finally to the approval of a new constitution. To keep the Icelandic process communicatively open in a transnational perspective may thus permit other persons to contribute to the development of Icelandic democracy. It may furthermore offer the Icelandic example as a useful tool that could be used by many world societies aiming to implement transparency, responsibility and participation in their public life. Indeed, even though the Constitutional Bill of 2011 will not finally be validly approved as the Icelandic constitution, the problems that it posed, and the possibilities that we see are stemming from them, have in our opinion a general importance for constitutional reflections.
The overture of the paper provides a brief survey of the philosophical positions (from Aristotle to the contemporary debate) focusing the conjecture of the legal and constitutional continuum as a problematic presupposition of theories of constituent power. The positions of the authors that we can call as continuist authors (up to Kelsen and the neo-normativism, including Soviet jurists and theorists of the constitutional cycles) constitutes the dominant part of the theoretical evolution. We discuss it (respectfully) even if we openly criticize it, with a peculiar debate involving that other position called as discontinuist (whose authors are especially Marxists philosophers, anti-fascist intellectuals like Piero Gobetti, and their references in philosophy such as Leibniz and Vico).
In the first movement of the paper, we reconstruct the equivoque at the basis of the conjecture of the continuum. It corresponds to a «three-time» scheme of constitutional dynamics: (revolutionary) rupture – transition – constitution. This structure makes useless (conceptually unusable, and perhaps sources of logical contradictions) both rupture and transition.
The second and final movement underlines the theoretical demand to consider the transition and the constitution as coextensive domains. Transition is, in other words, already Constitution, and the constitution is always a transition. To the latter ones, we introduce and add another phenomenon characterizing the historical phase of the transition, namely the Resistance.
The fact of resistance escapes the constitutionalisation, and imposes upon the latter a necessary character of transition.