The purpose of this study is to analyze economic reforms conducted in Ukraine during the period of the state’s independence. And also to identify, with the help of scientific tools – system analysis, management problems in the economy, their diagnosis, identification of the consequences that led to these problems, and ways development (at conceptual level) for their solving. The authors of the article proposed the concept of reforms in Ukraine. At the heart of the concept is the administrative reform aimed at creating organizational conditions under which corruption in power is almost completely neutralized. It is argued that such conditions are created by ensuring transparency, introduction of new information technologies, and minimizing the proportion of the so-called “human factor”. Within the framework of the innovative project (model) of economic management, it is envisaged to redistribute central power between the central apparatus of economic management, local authorities and the non-state sector.
The purpose of this article is to explore the subject of applying to the European Court of Human Rights in tax cases, the place of decisions of the European Court of Human Rights in the system of sources of tax law, the problems arising from the application of ECtHR decisions by Ukrainian courts in tax cases. The research was carried out using formal-dogmatic, system-structural, comparative-legal, historical and other methods of scientific cognition. The author concludes that it is important to use the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights to resolve public law disputes, the subject of which is public finances. After all, the Ukrainian tax system and tax legislation, the tax status of taxpayers and tax authorities should be based on the fundamental principles enshrined in the Convention and which have repeatedly been systematically interpreted in the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights.
Job polarization simply refers to the decline or disappearance of employment in middle skill occupations. Recent literature focuses on this phenomenon as a source of rising income inequality in countries. The hypothesis is that growth in employment over the last decades has favoured jobs at the low and high skill occupations with declines in employment shares in the middle of the distribution. First, this paper seeks to investigate whether labour polarization occurs in Central and Eastern European countries. Secondly, the paper assesses the role of technology on employment in the Central and Eastern European countries. Using employment shares and a cointegrated panel autoregressive distributed lag model, the paper presents comprehensive results on labour polarization and the impact of technology on employment in the labour markets of the Central and Eastern European countries. The results show positive impact of technology on high skill employment while negative on low and middle skill employment in the long-run. The study finds that though middle skill employment shares declined, there is no clear case of a U-shape employment distribution to indicate labour polarization.
As mediation and its support across the European Union have been growing, we can assume that the public is better aware of this option of dispute resolution. The law acquaintance with the focus on mediation has not been studied extensively, although the identification of the current state is crucial for formulating the effective strategies for its broader use. The aim of this paper based on the quantitative survey on a representative sample in the Czech Republic is to examine the mediation awareness and its differences across individual characteristics. The statistical analysis identifies very low awareness of mediation and its aspects. Moreover, this knowledge is higher among people with higher education, among middle-aged people and older people living in bigger municipalities. Based on the findings, the authors suggest that targeted campaigns organised by the state should be conducted through the channels accessible to the sociodemographic groups with lower awareness of mediation.
Czech workers’ compensation is “exemplified” by the adoption of the Worker’s Accident Insurance Act in 2006, four deferments of its effective date and then complete annulment of the Act. A temporary settlement aimed at resolving the incompatibility of the communist model of workers’ compensation for work accidents and occupational illnesses with the transition to a market economy after 1989 involved the implementation of statutory employer liability insurance for work accidents and occupational illnesses, outsourced to two private insurance companies; the current Czech government does not seem to have a know how to deal with it. The objective of this paper is primarily to advise the government using primarily the formulation and comparison of four basic social workers’ compensation models and furthermore considering the existing sickness, pension and health insurance systems. The choice of a social model is namely a matter of public choice, but intensive lobbying also constitutes part of these processes. The analyses result in a recommendation to “dissolve” the statutory employer liability insurance into a jointly collected social insurance contribution for sickness and pension insurance, and partly to transform the current accident benefits into increased sickness and pension benefit assessments and partly to cancel them.
The subject of this study is the characterization of the rights and possible obligations of a spouse of a partner of a limited liability company. Participation in a company with limited liability belonging to one of the spouses sometimes enters into joint property, and in the event of the cessation of this communion, it is divided. The company’s share belongs to the inheritance property.
On 10th April 2010 Polish Air Force Tu-154 carrying the President of the Republic of Poland Mr. Lech Kaczyński, the First Lady Maria Kaczyńska and 92 other high Polish officials and members of the crew, crashed in Smolensk. Following the crash, Polish and Russian governments by series of acts and omissions agreed for the investigation procedure according to the Chicago Convention from 1944, nothwithstanding the existence of the binding Polish-Russian agreement from 1993 applicable to military aircrafts.