Human evaluation (HE) of translation is generally considered to be valid, but it requires a lot of effort. Automatic evaluation (AE) which assesses the quality of machine translations can be done easily, but it still requires validation. This study addresses the questions of whether and how AE can be used for human translations. For this purpose AE formulas and HE criteria were compared to each other in order to examine the validity of AE. In the empirical part of the study, 120 translations were evaluated by professional translators as well as by two representative AE-systems, BLEU/ METEOR, respectively. The correlations between AE and HE were relatively high at 0.849** (BLEU) and 0.862** (METEOR) in the overall analysis, but in the ratings of the individual texts, AE and ME exhibited a substantial difference. The AE-ME correlations were often below 0.3 or even in the negative range. Ultimately, the results indicate that neither METEOR nor BLEU can be used to assess human translation at this stage. But this paper suggests three possibilities to apply AE to compromise the weakness of HE.
The use of rhyming slang in British and Irish football is a relatively recent phenomenon that has sometimes been noted in passing, but never studied in detail. How is this type of lexis created? And, equally important, why do football lovers find it useful? Drawing mainly on examples from print and online sources, this article examines the linguistic features of the specialist rhyming slang of football, how it is coined and what it is that makes it so appropriate for the beautiful game. The final part of the article provides a glossary of terms and nicknames, many of which have hitherto escaped the notice of lexicographers.
Social interpretation allows foreigners to access public services in a country whose language or culture they do not know. Thanks to interpreters in public services, communication between user and provider can take place, becoming a necessary tool to overcome the language barrier. However, in many cases the interpreter is exposed to difficult situations, since the people who use these services are in a situation of vulnerability and share traumatic experiences they have suffered. Because of these intense stories, interpreters for public services often suffer work-related stress. This study aims, through a survey distributed among professional interpreters, to find out the level of stress they face and thus, with the results obtained, to create a protocol with different strategies to help students studying Translation and Interpretation to perform an interpretation in public services avoiding or minimising the appearance of stress.
This paper will focus onthe role that source texts from early reader children’s literature can play in beginners’ translation classes helping students to develop culturally sensitive concepts of translator role and responsibility and encouraging them to use reader-oriented translation strategies.
In accordance with Functionalist Translation Theory, the translator’s ability to take into consideration culturally different perspectives is regarded as a basic component of his/her expert intercultural competence.
It will be argued that students’ empathy and ability to take others’ perspectives can be fostered through source texts that enable them to connect both with the fictional world (“text world”) and the target recipient’s situation (“real world”).
Translators and interpreters operating in the war zone face numerous factors that alter their cognitive and emotional capabilities, among which: fear, anxiety troubles and post-traumatic stress disorder. This article explains the cerebral processes that generate anxiety, emotion and cognitive complexity, advances the new notion of “laboratory stress” and establishes the link between these processes and anxiety and decision‑making. Finally, the article suggests emergency exists such as positive appraisal and the innovative notion of sociocognitive counter‑conditioning.