Epilepsy surgery is an important treatment modality for medically refractory focal epilepsy. The outcome of surgery usually depends on the localization accuracy of the epileptogenic zone (EZ) during pre-surgical evaluation. Good localization can be achieved with various electrophysiological and neuroimaging approaches. However, each approach has its own merits and limitations. Electroencephalography (EEG) Source Imaging (ESI) is an emerging model-based computational technique to localize cortical sources of electrical activity within the brain volume, three-dimensionally. ESI based pre-surgical evaluation gives an overall clinical yield of 73–91%, depending on choice of head model, inverse solution and EEG electrode density. It is a cost effective, non-invasive method which provides valuable additional information in presurgical evaluation due to its high localizing value specifically in MRI-negative cases, extra or basal temporal lobe epilepsy, multifocal lesions such as tuberous sclerosis or cases with multiple hypotheses. Unfortunately, less than 1% of surgical centers in developing countries use this method as a part of pre-surgical evaluation. This review promotes ESI as a useful clinical tool especially for patients with lesion-negative MRI to determine EZ cost-effectively with high accuracy under the optimized conditions.
Epilepsy is characterized by uncontrollable seizure during which consciousness of patient is disturbed. Prediction of the seizure in advance will increase the remedial possibilities for the patients suffering from epilepsy. An automated system for seizure prediction is important for seizure enactment, prevention of sudden unexpected deaths and to avoid seizure related injuries.
This paper proposes the prediction of an upcoming seizure by analyzing the 23 channel non-stationary EEG signal. EEG signal is divided into smaller segments to change it into quasi-stationary data using an overlapping moving window. Brain region is marked into four regions namely left hemisphere, right hemisphere, central region and temporal region to identify the epileptogenic region. The epileptogenic region shows significant variations during pre-ictal state in comparison to the other regions. So, seizure prediction is carried out by analyzing EEG signals from this region. Seizure prediction is proposed using features extracted from both time and frequency domain. Relative entropy and relative energy are extracted from wavelet transform and Pearson correlation coefficient is obtained from time domain EEG signal. Extracted features have been smoothened using moving average filter. First order derivative of relative features have been used to normalize the intervariability before deciding the threshold for marking the prediction of seizure.
Isolated seizures where pre-ictal duration of more than 1 h is reported has been detected with an accuracy of 92.18% with precursory warning 18 min in advance and seizure confirmation 12 min in advance. An overall accuracy of 83.33% with false positive alarm rate of 0.01/h has been obtained for all seizure cases with average prediction time of 9.9 min.
Epilepsy is a persistent neurological disorder impacting over 50 million people around the world. It is characterized by repeated seizures defined as brief episodes of involuntary movement that might entail the human body. Electroencephalography (EEG) signals are usually used for the detection of epileptic seizures. This paper introduces a new feature extraction method for the classification of seizure and seizure-free EEG time segments. The proposed method relies on the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), statistics and autoregressive (AR) parameters. The EMD method decomposes an EEG time segment into a finite set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) from which statistical coefficients and autoregressive parameters are computed. Nevertheless, the calculated features could be of high dimension as the number of IMFs increases, the Student’s t-test and the Mann–Whitney U test were thus employed for features ranking in order to withdraw lower significant features. The obtained features have been used for the classification of seizure and seizure-free EEG signals by the application of a feed-forward multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) classifier. Experimental results carried out on the EEG database provided by the University of Bonn, Germany, demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method which performance assessed by the classification accuracy (CA) is compared to other existing performances reported in the literature.
The present work proposes a novel, compact, intuitively simple and efficient structure to improve the sensitivity of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) capacitive accelerometer using an arrangement of microlever as a displacement amplifier. The accelerometer is proposed to serve as a microphone in the fully implantable cochlear prosthetic system which can be surgically implanted at the middle ear bone structure. Therefore, the design parameters such as size, weight and resonant frequency require deliberation. The paper presents a novel analytical model considering the impact of the mechanical amplification along with the width of the microlever and the capacitive fringe effects on the performance of the sensor. The design is simulated and verified using COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS 4.2. The accelerometer is designed within a sensing area of 1 mm2 and accomplishes a nominal capacitance of 4.85 pF and an excellent sensitivity of 5.91 fF/g.
In this paper, we attempt to answer the questions whether iris recognition task under the influence of diabetes would be more difficult and whether the effects of diabetes and individuals’ age are uncorrelated. We hypothesized that the health condition of volunteers plays an important role in the performance of the iris recognition system. To confirm the obtained results, we reported the distribution of usable area in each subgroup to have a more comprehensive analysis of diabetes effects. There is no conducted study to investigate for which age group (young or old) the diabetes effect is more acute on the biometric results. For this purpose, we created a new database containing 1,906 samples from 509 eyes. We applied the weighted adaptive Hough ellipsopolar transform technique and contrast-adjusted Hough transform for segmentation of iris texture, along with three different encoding algorithms. To test the hypothesis related to physiological aging effect, Welches’s t-test and Kolmogorov–Smirnov test have been used to study the age-dependency of diabetes mellitus influence on the reliability of our chosen iris recognition system. Our results give some general hints related to age effect on performance of biometric systems for people with diabetes.