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Series: De Gruyter STEM

Abstract

Boesenbergia rotunda or Temu kunci is a herb belonging to the Zingiberaceae family and wildly cultivated in Malaysia by rhizome. Temu kunci rhizome is commonly used in traditional medicines to cure stomach aches, promote appetite and gout. Due to its potential to be developed as one of Malaysia’s herbal products, information on their agronomic requirements is needed. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the different combination of the growing medium on B. rotunda growth and yield. Topsoil, peat moss, sand and chicken manure with four different ratios have been used as a planting medium. The potted plant was arranged in a randomised, complete block design with five replicates. The growth parameter was measured during harvesting time. The results showed that there was no significant difference in plant height, number of leaves, tiller number, fresh and dry shoot weight and fresh and dry root and rhizome weight in all treatments. It can be argued that this is because B. rotunda can be grown in different kinds of planting medium. Based on this study, it was suggested that topsoil be used for Temu Kunci planting, since it is easily obtained and requires less money.

Abstract

A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of different manures and fertilizers on the growth and yield of knol-khol (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes) at Dr. Purnendu Gain Field Laboratory of Agrotechnology Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna from November 2014 to February 2015. The single factor experiment comprised of different types of fertilizers and manures viz., T0 (Control), T1 (Recommended doses of NPK), T2 (Cow dung), T3 (Vermicompost), T4 (Poultry manure), T5 (50 % Cow dung + 50 % NPK), T6 (50% Vermicompost + 50% Cow dung), T7 (50% Vermicompost + 50 % Poultry manure) and T8 (25% Cow dung+ 25% Vermicompost+ 25% Poultry manure + 25% NPK). The Experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. The maximum plant height was obtained from the treatment T1 at 25, 35 and 45 Days after transplanting (DAT). The maximum spread of canopy was 36.75 cm, 52.50 cm and 66.05 cm from the treatment T3, T7 and T2, respectively. The maximum economic yield (21.92 t/ha) and biological yield (40.083 t/ha) were found in the treatment T1 and T7, respectively. Highest benefit cost ratio (3.07) was obtained from the treatment T1whilethe minimum (0.57) was obtained from T3 which indicates that high cost of vermicompost affect net return severely. Although, T1 produced maximum benefit cost ratio, the treatment T4 and T2 are very close to T1 and also statistically similar. So, we can consider poultry manure and cow dung for our soil health, environmental benefits and ecological safety.

Abstract

A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of spacing and nitrogen level on growth and yield of maize in Parbat from February to July, 2019. The experiment was laid out in two Factorial Randomized complete Block Design (RCBD) comprising of spacing: 60×15 cm and 60×25 cm and nitrogen: 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg/ha level as treatment with three replications. “Arun-2” variety of maize was planted on clay loam and acidic soil (pH 5.3) having medium in total nitrogen (0.15%), medium in soil available phosphorus (48.1 kg/ha), medium in soil available potassium (218.8 kg/ha) and medium in organic matter content (2.92%). Result shows that yield was significantly increased with increment in N-level up to 90 kg N/ha. The grain yield (5.18 mt/ha) was significantly higher at 90 kg N/ha than at 30 and 60 kg N/ha but at par with 120 kg N/ha. Significant effect on grain yield due to spacing was observed. The grain yield (4.11 mt/ha) obtained at spacing 60×15 cm. Moreover, the highest grain yield showed that highest grain yield (4.33 mt/ha) was obtained under 90 kg N/ha plus 60×15 cm spacing. The result revealed that different spacing and nitrogen level significantly affect the plant height and leaf area index. The plant height and leaf area index were significantly high at close spacing (60×15 cm) and at 120 kg N/ha. Likewise, yield attributing characteristics like cob length, cob diameter, number of kernel/rows, number of kernel row, thousand gran weight were the highest at 90 kg/ha but as par with 120 kg/ha at close spacing (60×15 cm). This study suggested that maize production can be maximized by cultivating “Arun-2” maize fertilizing with 90 kg N/ha and maintaining 60×15 cm spacing.

Abstract

Carbohydrate & Protein Malnutrition is broadly perceived as, significant medical issue in the world due to cereal-based dietary examples. The protein nature of the cereal-based diet can be improved by fortification. Edible mushrooms are rich in protein, carbohydrate, minerals, other nutritive compounds. Fortification of mushroom in cookies helps improve cookies quality alongside fulfill nutrition demand. Powdered Mushrooms are one of these sources that have incredible potential. This paper surveys the impact of Button and Oyster mushroom powder on the rheological, physicochemical, textural and quality attributes of the cookies item. Mushrooms were cleaned in normal water and whitened with steam for 7 min, then sliced it for uniform size, dried the sliced mushrooms in a microwave oven at 55 °C, 120 min. Then transfer it powder form. Fortified 15% of mushroom powder improves baking period quality, cookies shape, protein, carbohydrate & nutrition value. Fortification range of up to 20% was tolerating in bakery products. Contingent upon the wholesome and tactile outcomes, it very well may be rea stoned that 15% mushroom strengthened with flour is worthy quality and it healthful better over locally accessible flours. The discoveries of the current investigation will be useful individuals experiencing a lack of healthy sustenance and other degenerative illnesses. Further, an expansion was noticed sure repulsive consequences for practically all quality parameters of the cookies which could decreased by the expansion of different modifiers and added substances so as get fantastic quality treats. That impact makes protein and Carbohydrate rich cookies later on.

Abstract

There is a lot of scandals and even food poisoning caused by consuming poor-quality meat in Russian Federation (RF). This is especially true for ready-toeat meat products (e.g., sausages, smoked meats, dumplings, meat pies), as the buyers do not see what they are made of. The fact is that in the USSR they had a well-developed system of state verification and standardization of all food products. The state standards (GOSTs) issued for each food product had the power of law. Violations of GOST requirements were regarded as crimes. However, the RF Law “On Standardization” has factually lost its power in connection with the adoption (2002) of the Federal Law “On Technical Regulating”. Therefore, new GOSTs have not previous power and are removed from the jurisdiction of the RF government. The fuzzy “technical specifications” (TUs) in contrast with previous severe GOSTs for food do not provide products quality control but are only indicators of biological, chemical and radiation safety. Using GOST labelling on food items seems as a marketing gimmick today. Nevertheless, recently there have been reports of the development of digital quality control and related legislation. Research findings presented herein show significant growth of Halal meat market. Increased customer confidence in Halal products is also found among non-Muslim buyers. The Council of Muftis of RF, together with the presidential administration of RF, has initiated the development of the state document “Requirements for producing, manufacturing, processing, storage and sale of Halal products”. Halal labelling was developed and approved and Halal stores opened. Our brief customer survey has showed the results of customer confidence in the Halal meat and meat product market could be found across the entire range of Halal food items. Taking into account global trends, the Halal food market in Russia as well as Halal industry as a whole have great prospects (exporting Halal items included) and this phenomenon demands a future extended research.

Abstract

There are more than 24.1 % of the world’s population are Muslim. Considering the religious preference, Drug Control Authority (DCA) requires manufacturers to declare clearly if their products contain materials of animal origin, as well as unsafe drugs. In general, Health supplements, herbal products, and traditional medicine are classified as “food-drug interphase (FDI) products. FDI products are products with a combination of food ingredients and active ingredients for oral consumption. FDI products are widely believed to be able to prevent or even cure many diseases. However, over the past ten years, there are various FDI products in Malaysia contain dangerous drugs. Hence, this study summarizes the harmful effect of listed unsafe drugs possess in the FDI products, the category of the product, and the type of claim. According to the National Pharmaceutical Regulatory Agency (NPRA) recent report, there are 162 FDI products have been mixed up with illegal drugs which majority of them contain Dexamethasone. The most category of products that contain unsafe drugs is among traditional medicine products followed by health supplements, herbal supplement products, and dietary supplements. These products were commonly marketed to strengthen the veins & joint and pain relief, weight loss, sexual enhancement, energy booster, relieve sinus, and gout. Hence, an awareness of adulteration in pharmaceuticals is crucial to ensure the quality, safety, and effectiveness of the products towards human health.

Paradoxien eines ärztlichen Postulats in der Behandlung Schwerstkranker

Abstract

Objective: We aimed to determine the prevalence of depression and to find factors associated with depression in admitted medical patients. The differences in the pattern of depression between a university hospital (UH) and a regional hospital (RH) were determined as well.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was administered among hospitalized patients in medical wards. PHQ-9 could not differentiate between the type of depressive disorder that could be from medical conditions, adjustment disorder with depressed mood, major depressive disorder, or dysthymia.

Results: A total of 343 patients (191 in UH, 152 in RH group) with age of 52.1 ± 16.9 years were included. Timing of interview was 4.3 ± 1.4 days after admission. The prevalence of depression (PHQ-9 score ≥ 9) was 12% (7.3% in UH vs 17.8% in RH, p < 0.005). According to PHQ-9 scoring, the prevalence of moderate-to-severe depression was 3.8%. Mean PHQ-9 score in RH was significantly higher than in UH (p < 0.001). Multiple baseline characteristics were analyzed by logistic regression and found no factors associated with depression. There was no difference in baseline characteristics of UH patients with depression compared to RH, except for universal health coverage plan.

Conclusions: The prevalence of depression was 1 in 10 patients and was found to be more frequent and severe in RH than UH. All patients were at equal risk to develop depression during admission.