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Introduction: Commonly prescribed medications are associated with various gastrointestinal (GI) side effects but few data are available on prescription medication use and polypharmacy in a gastroenterology outpatient practice. We aimed to examine the prevalence of polypharmacy, defined as the simultaneous use of 5 or more medications.

Methods: A descriptive correlational study of consecutive outpatient consultations in 988 patients referred to a tertiary gastroenterology practice. Main outcome measurements were frequency of prescription medication use and polypharmacy.

Results: The most common GI symptoms were abdominal pain (72%), nausea (57%), and constipation (53%). The frequency of polypharmacy was 10%. Eighty percent of patients took at least one medication and 60% took two or more. The most frequently used medication classes were proton pump inhibitors (43%), followed by benzodiazepines (30%), selective serotoninreuptake or norepinephrine-reuptake inhibitors (28%), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (27%), and opioids (21%).

Conclusion: There was a higher use of prescription medicine including antidepressants, and a lower frequency of polypharmacy in our study cohort compared to the general population. The use of medications may have contributed to the symptoms leading to our study’s population GI consultation.


Introduction. The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide in high, low, and middle-income countries such as Indonesia. Obesity rate is higher in females in Indonesia. Obesity has important contribution in the occurrence of insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Several anthropometric measurements such as waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), body mass (BM), total body fat percentage (Fat%) and visceral fat (VF) are related to IR. This study aimed to investigate which of those measurements could be used as a better predictor of IR in non-menopausal Indonesian adult females.

Methods. Total of 80 non-menopausal Indonesian adult females ranging from 21-40 years were recruited in this study. Insulin resistance was measured by using Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) equation. Subjects with HOMA-IR index >75th percentile with cut-off 2.74 were defined as IR. Waist circumference, BMI and BM were measured, while TF and VF were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA).

Results. HOMA-IR had significant correlation with WC (r = 0.563, p<0.001), BMI (r = 0.537, p<0.001), BM (r = 0.515, p<0.001), VF (r = 0.515, p<0.001), Fat% (r = 0.490, p<0.001). The area under curve of VF (0.809), BMI (0.807), WC (0.805), and BM (0.799) are slightly larger than and Fat% (0.766).

Conclusion. Insulin resistance had strong correlation with all anthropometric measurements, but the correlation was less significant with Fat%.


Sufficient caloric intake is important to maintain the balanced health status, especially during the period of aging, as aging and sickness share paths. Maintaining adequate nutritional balance is the best preventive measure to counteract the risk of malnutrition. There are several causes for malnutrition in elderly people, and some techniques such as anthropometric measurements, laboratory and clinical parameters could help to diagnose malnutrition in these patients. The use of a simple validated questionnaire called the ‘Mini Nutritional Assessment’ measures the nutritional status of elderly patients. In this review, we discuss about the malnutrition in elderly people with and without a known cause and we present some of nutritional intervention. There are promising strategies that help overcoming malnutrition.


Introduction. Studies regarding antibiotics administration during pregnancy and atopic dermatitis (AD) in children are only few. In this context, the objective of our study was to investigate the potential association between the timing of intrauterine exposure to antibiotics or prenatal antibiotic administration in general and AD occurrence in children.

Methods. This was a cross-sectional study in 1046 subjects. The exposure to antibiotics during pregnancy was initially evaluated using simple logistic regressions. Then, each period of antibiotics administration was adjusted with the other periods of antibiotics exposure (model 1) and with the other variables associated with AD in our database (model 2).

Results. In simple logistic regression analysis, the administration of antibiotics during pregnancy, as a whole period, presented a trend of association with AD (OR = 1.28, %CI: 0.99 – 1.65). When we analyzed antibiotic administration during each trimester of pregnancy, only antibiotherapy during the 3rd trimester was associated with AD (OR = 2.94, %CI: 1.21 – 7.12). After adjusting with all the other important risk factors associated with AD in the database, antibiotics administration during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy was still independently associated with AD (OR=2.64, %CI: 1.01 – 6.91).

Conclusion. Antibiotic administration during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy was independently associated with AD in children.


In recent years there has been an increase in the incidence of acute pancreatitis worldwide. In spite of efforts to improve the treatment and care of patients with acute pancreatitis, to develop imaging investigations and interventional diagnostic and treatment techniques and to facilitate patients’ access to them, acute pancreatitis continues to be associated with significant mortality and morbidity, and the treatment of patients suffering from this disease entails significant costs for healthcare systems.

Researchers are in a permanent quest to get to a global consensus for stratifying the severity of acute pancreatitis. We need this in order to offer the proper management for each patient diagnosed with this condition and to improve hospital and health system strategies.

Over the years, it has been attempted to develop algorithms to support a swift assessment of patients with acute pancreatitis with a prediction of disease severity as close to reality as possible for optimal management. This has led to the development of classifications of severity and severity scores. These require a permanent updating to keep up with the technical and technological developments involved in investigating and treating the patient and encompassing the most recent studies.

The goal of this paper is to go through these classifications and scores, emphasizing factors that should be taken into account, and reflecting upon their utility and upon the necessity of improving them.


Background.Early intervention for septic shock is crucial to reduce mortality and improve outcome. There is still a great debate over the exact time of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) administration in septic shock patients. This study aims to investigate the effect of early initiation (within 4 hours) of TPE in severe septic shock on hemodynamics & outcome.

Methods. We conducted a prospective, before-after case series study on 16 septic shock patients requiring high doses of vasopressors admitted in two ICUs from Cairo, Egypt. All of our patients received TPE within 4 hours of ICU admission. The fresh frozen plasma exchange volume = 1.5 × plasma volume.

Results. In the 16 patients included in the study, mean arterial pressure was significantly improved after the initial TPE (p < 0.002) and norepinephrine dose which significantly reduced post TPE (p < 0.001). In addition, norepinephrine dose to mean arterial pressure significantly improved (p < 0.001). There was reduction of a net 6 hours fluid balances following the first TPE were observed in all the patients (p < 0.03) by a mean of 757 ml. Systemic vascular resistance index was markedly improved post-TPE along with statistically improved cardiac index (p < 0.01). Stroke volume variance was also significantly decreased after the TPE sessions (p < 0.01). C-reactive protein significantly improved after TPE (P < 0.01).

Conclusion. Early initiation of TPE in severe septic shock patients might improve hemodynamic measures.


Introduction. Central obesity is characterized by the accumulation of abdominal fat which may lead to several diseases including insulin resistance. The prevalence of central obesity is higher in male and the incidence in young adult males is increased. Central obesity is also related to low testosterone levels. The research aimed to assess the relationship between the testosterone levels and insulin resistance of young adult males with central obesity.

Methods. This was a cross-sectional study, the subjects were young adult males of 18 to 25 years old. The central obesity consisted of 50 samples and non-central obesity comprised 70 samples. The examination of testosterone and insulin was performed by the ECLIA method, glucose used the enzymatic method, the insulin resistance was calculated by using the HOMA-IR index.

Results. The mean of the testosterone level in central obesity was lower than non-central obesity (5.24 + 1.17 vs 7.18 + 1.54 ng/mL, p < 0.001). HOMA-IR index in central obesity was higher than non-central obesity (4.29 + 2.23 vs 2.46 + 1.72, p < 0.001). Testosterone levels had negative correlation with HOMA-IR (r = –0.470, p < 0.001). There was significant difference in HOMA-IR among the quartiles of testosterone levels.

Conclusion. There is negative correlation between testosterone level with HOMA-IR, the lower the testosterone level the higher the insulin resistance in young adult males.


Background. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the foremost cause of death in the most developed societies. Plaque formation in epicardial coronary arteries and ensuing inflammation are a known pathophysiologic factor of CAD.

Objectives. We aimed to separately and simultaneously evaluate the correlation between pericardial fat pad volume and overall peri-coronary epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness with coronary calcium score (CCS) to improve risk stratification of CAD.

Methods. We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent a non-invasive contrast-enhanced coronary multidetector CT (MDCT) angiography. Peri-coronary EAT thickness, pericardial fat pad volume and CCS were obtained by an expert radiologist from the patients coronary multidetector CT (MDCT) angiography.

Results. We included 141 symptomatic patients (86 men, 55 women) with an average age of 53.53 ± 12.92. An increment of overall peri-coronary EAT thickness (1/3 × (left anterior descending artery (LAD) + left circumflex artery (LCx) + right coronary artery (RCA)) was associated with a 49% increase in the odds for the presence of coronary artery calcification (CAC) (P = 0.004). Significant predictability of peri-coronary EAT-average was seen in diagnosing calcified plaque. Pericardial fat pad volume was positively correlated with overall peri-coronary EAT thickness in age and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted linear regression models, (P < 0.001).

Conclusion. Our results amplify previous idea that peri-coronary EAT and pericardial fat pad volume might act as useful markers and better indicators of CCS based on Agatston score in comparison with BMI or body weight in order to reveal subsequent CADs.