Intraperitoneal chemotherapy has shown promising results for the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis in gastric cancer. However, the implantation of an intraperitoneal chemotherapy port may be associated with catheter-related complications. The authors describe a case of cutaneous port-site recurrence secondary to tumour seeding from an intraperitoneal chemotherapy access port.
An effective treatment strategy for peritoneal metastasis (PM) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC-PM) has yet to be established. Although cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have shown favorable outcomes in certain malignancies, their role in peritoneal metastatic HCC is unclear. Herein, we present a series of patients with HCC-PM treated with CRS/HIPEC and evaluate their outcomes.
Records of patients with HCC-PM who had undergone CRS/HIPEC at the Hyperthermia Center of Yuan’s General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, between September 2015 and December 2016 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were followed up until September 2019. We assessed the clinical courses and outcomes of these patients to clarify the benefits of CRS/HIPEC.
Six patients were included in our study. HCC-PM occurred synchronously in one patient and occurred metachronously in five patients after therapeutic minimally invasive procedures, including radiofrequency ablation, laparoscopic hepatectomy, robotic hepatectomy or spontaneously. The median peritoneal cancer index was 18.5. All patients experienced complete peritoneal cytoreduction without perioperative mortality. One patient had two CTCAE grade 3 complications. The median follow-up was 16 months. The median overall survival was 15.7 months. Four patients died of lung metastasis or liver failure owing to intrahepatic recurrence. The survival rates observed at 1, 2, and 4 years were 66.7%, 33.3%, and 33.3%, respectively.
CRS followed by HIPEC is feasible in patients with HCC-PM and might provide selected patients a chance for local disease control and longer survival. CRS/HIPEC might be considered as a treatment option in highly selected patients, as part of multimodal therapy approaches.
Pressurized IntraPeritoneal Aerosol Chemotherapy (PIPAC) represents a novel approach to intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Hereby results, obtained with PIPAC in patients with advanced peritoneal metastasis (PM) from colorectal cancer (CRC), are presented.
Data from CRC patients (n = 24) included in the prospective PIPAC-OPC1 and PIPAC-OPC2 trials are reported. Oxaliplatin 92 mg/m2 was administered at 4-6-week intervals. A CE certified nebulizer was used to aerosolize the chemotherapeutics. Outcome criteria were objective tumor response, survival and adverse events.
Retrospective analysis of 74 PIPAC procedures carried out in 24 consecutive patients with PM from CRC included from October 2015 to February 2019. Five patients had still the primary tumor in situ, and 22 patients had received palliative systemic chemotherapy. Nineteen patients completed more than two PIPAC procedures, and objective tumor response according to the histological Peritoneal Regression Grading Score (PRGS) was observed in 67% of the patients, while 21% had stable disease. Four patients (21%) had complete response (mean PRGS = 1 and negative cytology). We recorded a median survival of 37.6 (range 7.3–48.9) months from the time of PM diagnosis, whereas it was 20.5 (range 0.13–34.7) months following the first PIPAC session. Minor postoperative complications were noted, and few were considered causally related to the PIPAC treatment. However, two cases of severe postoperative complications were recorded (urosepsis and iatrogenic bowel perforation).
PIPAC with low-dose oxaliplatin can induce objective tumor regression in selected patients with advanced PM from colorectal cancer.
Metabolomic profiling of human malignant effusion remain a field poorly investigated. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy is a rapid relatively low cost technique, and effusion is an optimal biospecimen suitable for metabonomic investigations. With this study we addressed metabolomic profiling of malignant ascitic effusion (mAE) from patients with high grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC), Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and benign AEs (bAEs) from patients with reactive peritonitis.
Metabolic profiling with 1H-NMR was performed on 72 AEs (31 HGSOC, 16 HCC and 25 bAE) prospectively collected in our cytology service. Histological confirmation was requested for all malignant case. Multivariate analysis comprising PCA and PLS-DA was applied to discover metabolites suitable to differentiate effusions among the investigated groups.
1H-NMR metabonomic analysis showed clearly different spectra for malignant and benign AEs, as well as for HGSOC vs. HCC effusion. When compared with HCC effusions, the HGSOC effusion were enriched, among all, in alanine, lipids, N-acetyl groups and phenylalanine and depleted in glutamine.
Subject to validation in further larger studies, 1H-NMR metabonomics could be an effective and reliable ancillary tool for AE investigations and diagnosis particularly in acellular effusions.
Liver transplantation (LT) is a challenging surgery performed on patients with complex physiology profiles, complicated by multi-system dysfunction. It represents the treatment of choice for end-stage liver disease. The procedure is performed under general anaesthesia, and a successful procedure requires an excellent understanding of the patho-physiology of liver failure and its implications. Despite advances in knowledge and technical skills and innovations in immunosuppression, the anaesthetic management for LT can be complicated and represent a real challenge. Monitoring devices offer crucial information for the successful management of patients. Hemodynamic instability is typical during surgery, requiring sophisticated invasive monitoring. Arterial pulse contour analysis and thermo-dilution techniques (PiCCO), rotational thromboelastometry (RO-TEM), transcranial doppler (TCD), trans-oesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and bispectral index (BIS) have been proven to be reliable monitoring techniques playing a significant role in decision making. Anaesthetic management is specific according to the three critical phases of surgery: pre-anhepatic, anhepatic and neo-hepatic phase. Surgical techniques such as total or partial clamping of the inferior vena cava (IVC), use of venovenous bypass (VVBP) or portocaval shunts have a significant impact on cardiovascular stability. Post reperfusion syndrome (PRS) is a significant event and can lead to arrhythmias and even cardiac arrest.