Since SARS-COV-2 appeared in Wuhan City, China and rapidly spread throughout Europe, a real revolution occurred in the daily routine and in the organization of the entire health system. While non-urgent clinical services have been reduced as far as possible, all kind of specialists turned into COVID-19 specialists. Obstetric assistance cannot be suspended and, at the same time, safety must be guaranteed. In addition, as COVID-19 positive pregnant patients require additional care, some of the clinical habits need to be changed to face emerging needs for a vulnerable but unstoppable kind of patients. We report the management set up in an Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit during the COVID-19 era in a University Hospital in Milan, Italy.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a new coronavirus, was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China and spread rapidly, affecting many other countries. The disease is now referred to as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).The Italian government declared a state of emergency on 31st January 2020 and on 11th March World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared the COVID-19 outbreak a global pandemic. Although the COVID-19 incidence remained considerably lower in Sardinia than in the North Italy regions, which were the most affected, the field of prenatal screening and diagnosis was modified because of the emerging pandemic. Data on COVID-19 during pregnancy are so far limited. Since the beginning of the emergency, our Ob/Gyn Department at Microcitemico Hospital, Cagliari offered to pregnant patients all procedures considered essential by the Italian Ministry of Health. To evaluate the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the activities of our center, we compared the number of procedures performed from 10th March to 18th May 2020 with those of 2019. Despite the continuous local birth rate decline, during the 10-week pandemic period, we registered a 20% increment of 1st trimester combined screening and a slight rise of the number of invasive prenatal procedures with a further increase in chorionic villi sampling compared to amniocentesis. Noninvasive prenatal testing remained unvariated. The request for multifetal pregnancy reduction as a part of the growing tendency of voluntary termination of pregnancy in Sardinia increased. The COVID-19 pandemic provides many scientific opportunities for clinical research and study of psychological and ethical issues in pregnant women.
Violence against medical trainees confronts medical educators and academic leaders in perinatal medicine with urgent ethical challenges. Despite their evident importance, these ethical challenges have not received sufficient attention. The purpose of this paper is to provide an ethical framework to respond to these ethical challenges.
We used an existing critical appraisal tool to conduct a scholarly review, to identify publications on the ethical challenges of violence against trainees. We conducted web searches to identify reports of violence against trainees in Mexico. Drawing on professional ethics in perinatal medicine, we describe an ethical framework that is unique in the literature on violence against trainees in its appeal to the professional virtue of self-sacrifice and its justified limits.
Our search identified no previous publications that address the ethical challenges of violence against trainees. We identified reports of violence and their limitations. The ethical framework is based on the professional virtue of self-sacrifice in professional ethics in perinatal medicine. This virtue creates the ethical obligation of trainees to accept reasonable risks of life and health but not unreasonable risks. Society has the ethical obligation to protect trainees from these unreasonable risks. Medical educators should protect personal safety. Academic leaders should develop and implement policies to provide such protection. Institutions of government should provide effective law enforcement and fair trials of those accused of violence against trainees. International societies should promulgate ethics statements that can be applied to violence against trainees. By protecting trainees, medical educators and academic leaders in perinatology will also protect pregnant, fetal, and neonatal patients.
This paper is the first to provide an ethical framework, based on the professional virtue of self-sacrifice and its justified limits, to guide medical educators and academic leaders in perinatal medicine who confront ethical challenges of violence against their trainees.
Our aim was to study the association of clinical variables obtainable before delivery for severe neonatal outcomes (SNO) and develop a clinical tool to calculate the prediction probability of SNO in preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM).
This was a prospective study from October 2015 to May 2018. We included singleton pregnancies with PPROM and an estimated fetal weight (EFW) two weeks before delivery. We excluded those with fetal anomalies or fetal death. We examined the association between SNO and variables obtainable before delivery such as gestational age (GA) at PPROM, EFW, gender, race, body mass index, chorioamnioitis. SNO was defined as having at least one of the following: respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, neonatal sepsis, or neonatal death. The most parsimonious logistic regression models was constructed using the best subset selection model approach, and receiver operator curves were utilized to evaluate the prognostic accuracy of these clinical variables for SNO.
We included 106 pregnancies, 42 had SNO (39.6%). The EFW (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC]=0.88) and GA at PPROM (AUC=0.83) were significant predictors of SNO. The addition of any of the other variables did not improve the predictive probability of EFW for the prediction of SNO.
The EFW had the strongest association with SNO in in our study among variables obtainable before delivery. Other variables had no significant effect on the prediction probability of the EFW. Our findings should be validated in larger studies.
There are growing evidence that exercise improves sacroiliac dysfunction symptoms in pregnant women; but no data about the effect of expert advice regarding this matter. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of expert advice about therapeutic exercise on sacroiliac dysfunction in pregnancy.
A total of 500 women with sacroiliac dysfunction diagnosed in pregnancy were randomized in study and control group. Study group has conducted expert advice on therapeutic exercise; while control group continued with their normal lifestyle. Pain intensity by Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and degree of functional disability by Quebec scale were assessed at enrolment and after 3 and 6 weeks.
Significantly better reduction in pain intensity assessed by VAS (p=0.001) and degree of functional disability assessed by Quebec scale (p=0.001) was noted in study compared to control group. Better results for both outcome measures were obtained if intervention was implemented earlier i.e., in second (p=0.001; p=0.001) compared to third (p=0.005; p=0.001) trimester. Strong positive correlation was found between pain intensity and degree of functional disability in both groups.
Expert advice on therapeutic exercise is effective in reduction of sacroiliac dysfunction symptoms during pregnancy.