SEARCH CONTENT

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 11,438 items :

  • Special Obstetrics and Perinatal Medicine x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objectives

We investigated the quality of life (QOL) in parents of children with late treated phenylketonuria (PKU) and its associated factors.

Methods

We conducted a cross sectional study in the reference center of inherited metabolic disease in Tunisia. We used the Tunisian version of the 36-item short-form health survey questionnaire (SF-36). We compared variables in the groups with and without impaired QOL and the SF-36 scores between subgroups of parents and children and between our sample and the Tunisian general population based on published data. We looked for associations between SF-36 scores and quantitative variables. Linear regression and logistic binary regression were used for multivariate analysis.

Results

Sixty-five parents from 42 families participated. QOL was impaired in 61% of them. The mean SF-36 score was 55.3 ± 25.07. The physical component sub-score was higher than that reported in the Tunisian general population (63.66 ± 27.77 vs. 50.11 ± 8.53; p<0.001). The mental component sub-score was comparable to that reported in the Tunisian general population (46.99 ± 25.94 vs. 47.96 ± 9.82; p=0.830). Gender (mothers) (p=0.008), low monthly income (p = 0.027), low education (p=0.011), and autism in PKU children (p = 0.001) were associated with impaired QOL.

Conclusions

We identified at risk parents for altered quality of life among parents of PKU children. Our findings were used to develop a psychological and social support strategy for at-risk parents and to promote the implementation of newborn screening of this treatable disease in our low-income country.

Abstract

Background

Physiologic hyperglycemia of puberty is a major contributor to poor glycemic control in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D). This study’s aim was to determine the effectiveness of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) to improve glycemic control in pubertal youth with T1D compared to a non-CGM cohort after controlling for age, sex, BMI, duration, and insulin delivery methodology. The hypothesis is that consistent CGM use in puberty improves compliance with diabetes management, leading to increased percentage (%) time in range (TIR70–180 mg/dL) of glycemia, and lowering of HbA1c.

Methods

A longitudinal, retrospective, case-controlled study of 105 subjects consisting of 51 T1D controls (60.8% male) age 11.5 ± 3.8 y; and 54 T1D subjects (48.1% male) age 11.1 ± 5.0 y with confirmed CGM use for 12 months. Pubertal status was determined by Tanner staging. Results were adjusted for baseline HbA1c and diabetes duration.

Results

HbA1c was similar between the controls and the CGM group at baseline: 8.2 ± 1.1% vs 8.3 ± 1.2%, p=0.48 respectively; but was significantly lower in the CGM group 12 months later, 8.2 ± 1.1% vs. 8.7 ± 1.4%, p=0.035. Longitudinal change in HbA1c was similar in the prepubertal cohort between the control- and CGM groups: −0.17 ± 0.98% vs. 0.38 ± 1.5%, p=0.17. In contrast, HbA1c increased with advancing age and pubertal status in the pubertal controls but not in the pubertal CGM group: 0.55 ± 1.4 vs −0.22 ± 1.1%, p=0.020. Percent TIR was inversely related to HbA1c in the CGM group, r=-0.6, p=0.0004, for both prepubertal and pubertal subjects.

Conclusions

CGM use significantly improved glycemic control in pubertal youth with T1D compared to non-CGM users.

Abstract

Since SARS-COV-2 appeared in Wuhan City, China and rapidly spread throughout Europe, a real revolution occurred in the daily routine and in the organization of the entire health system. While non-urgent clinical services have been reduced as far as possible, all kind of specialists turned into COVID-19 specialists. Obstetric assistance cannot be suspended and, at the same time, safety must be guaranteed. In addition, as COVID-19 positive pregnant patients require additional care, some of the clinical habits need to be changed to face emerging needs for a vulnerable but unstoppable kind of patients. We report the management set up in an Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit during the COVID-19 era in a University Hospital in Milan, Italy.

Abstract

Background

Congenital hyperinsulinism (CH) is the most frequent cause of persistent hypoglycemia in the newborn. Octreotide, a long-acting somatostatin receptor analog (SSRA), is a second line treatment for diazoxide unresponsive CH patients. Although it has been found to be a safe and effective treatment, long-term benefits and side effects, have not been thoroughly evaluated.

Case presentation

Some authors have indicated that exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is a common but under-recognized adverse reaction in adults treated with octreotide. However, no pediatric patient with SSRA-induced EPI has been reported to date. Here we report a case of an infant with diazoxide unresponsive, diffuse CH, caused by a heterozygous pathogenic paternally inherited mutation in the ABCC8 gene (NM_000352.4:c.357del), that developed exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and secondary vitamin K deficiency associated to chronic octreotide therapy.

Conclusions

We point out the atypical clinical onset with a cutaneous hemorrhagic syndrome, emphasizing the clinical relevance of this potential side effect.

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a new coronavirus, was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China and spread rapidly, affecting many other countries. The disease is now referred to as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).The Italian government declared a state of emergency on 31st January 2020 and on 11th March World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared the COVID-19 outbreak a global pandemic. Although the COVID-19 incidence remained considerably lower in Sardinia than in the North Italy regions, which were the most affected, the field of prenatal screening and diagnosis was modified because of the emerging pandemic. Data on COVID-19 during pregnancy are so far limited. Since the beginning of the emergency, our Ob/Gyn Department at Microcitemico Hospital, Cagliari offered to pregnant patients all procedures considered essential by the Italian Ministry of Health. To evaluate the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the activities of our center, we compared the number of procedures performed from 10th March to 18th May 2020 with those of 2019. Despite the continuous local birth rate decline, during the 10-week pandemic period, we registered a 20% increment of 1st trimester combined screening and a slight rise of the number of invasive prenatal procedures with a further increase in chorionic villi sampling compared to amniocentesis. Noninvasive prenatal testing remained unvariated. The request for multifetal pregnancy reduction as a part of the growing tendency of voluntary termination of pregnancy in Sardinia increased. The COVID-19 pandemic provides many scientific opportunities for clinical research and study of psychological and ethical issues in pregnant women.

Abstract

Background

The need for screening for autoimmune thyroid disease in children who have HLA-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D), but have not yet been diagnosed with T1D, has not been thoroughly studied. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies and its effect on thyroid function in children with genetic susceptibility to T1D as well as to describe the association between thyroid autoimmunity and HLA-DQ genotypes.

Methods

Cross-sectional study in 223 children (112 boys) aged 7.4–10.5 years with HLA-conferred susceptibility to T1D. TPOAb were measured in all children; thyroglobulin antibodies (TGAb) and thyroid function in TPOAb positive subjects.

Results

Girls had a significantly higher median TPOAb concentration than boys (12 vs 11 kU/L; p=0.001). Positive TPOAb occurred in 13.9% and positive TGAb in 4% of subjects. Only two children had mild changes in thyroid function. There was no association between HLA risk groups and the prevalence of TPOAb.

Conclusions

TPOAb are common in children with HLA-conferred susceptibility to T1D, yet are weakly associated with thyroid function, suggesting limited value of thyroid screening in this cohort.

Abstract

Objectives

Violence against medical trainees confronts medical educators and academic leaders in perinatal medicine with urgent ethical challenges. Despite their evident importance, these ethical challenges have not received sufficient attention. The purpose of this paper is to provide an ethical framework to respond to these ethical challenges.

Methods

We used an existing critical appraisal tool to conduct a scholarly review, to identify publications on the ethical challenges of violence against trainees. We conducted web searches to identify reports of violence against trainees in Mexico. Drawing on professional ethics in perinatal medicine, we describe an ethical framework that is unique in the literature on violence against trainees in its appeal to the professional virtue of self-sacrifice and its justified limits.

Results

Our search identified no previous publications that address the ethical challenges of violence against trainees. We identified reports of violence and their limitations. The ethical framework is based on the professional virtue of self-sacrifice in professional ethics in perinatal medicine. This virtue creates the ethical obligation of trainees to accept reasonable risks of life and health but not unreasonable risks. Society has the ethical obligation to protect trainees from these unreasonable risks. Medical educators should protect personal safety. Academic leaders should develop and implement policies to provide such protection. Institutions of government should provide effective law enforcement and fair trials of those accused of violence against trainees. International societies should promulgate ethics statements that can be applied to violence against trainees. By protecting trainees, medical educators and academic leaders in perinatology will also protect pregnant, fetal, and neonatal patients.

Conclusions

This paper is the first to provide an ethical framework, based on the professional virtue of self-sacrifice and its justified limits, to guide medical educators and academic leaders in perinatal medicine who confront ethical challenges of violence against their trainees.

Abstract

Objectives

Children from different countries and with different ethnic backgrounds have a distinct pattern of central fat deposition. Therefore, it is essential to develop population-specific percentiles of waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist-to-height ratio exponent (WHtR (exp)) for the evaluation of central obesity. The objective of this study was to develop age-and-gender-specific smoothed WC and WHtR percentile curves for the Pakistani children and adolescents aged 2–18 years.

Methods

A cross-sectional data-set from a multi-ethnic anthropometric survey was considered. A sample of 10,668 healthy subjects (boys = 51.92%; and girls = 48.08%), aged 2–18 years was studied. Height (cm) and WC (cm) of each subject was measured under standard procedure and WHtR & WHtR (exp) were calculated. Age-and-gender-specific smoothed curves were obtained using the lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method and compared with percentile curves obtained from different countries.

Results

Except few early ages, the WC values increased with age in both sexes. Both boys and girls had approximately similar WC during 6–11 years of age and after age of 11, the boys had larger WC than the girls had. For WHtR, the centile curves showed a continuous decrease by 16 years of age and then increased gradually. WHtR of the girls in various ages were having similar or higher than those of the boys. In comparison of WC 50th and 90th percentiles with other countries, it was found that except few ages, the Pakistani children had larger WC than the other reference populations and the results of WHtR were also comparable to the other nations.

Conclusions

We present new reference data of WC, WHtR and WHtR (exp) using a representative sample of the Pakistani children aged 2–18 years. These reference values can be used provisionally for early detection of central obesity and its associated risks in the Pakistani children.