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Abstract

Objectives

Type 2 Diabetes mellitus is a progressive metabolic disease characterized by relative insulin insufficiency and insulin resistance resulting in hyperglycemia. Despite the widespread use of metformin, there is considerable variation in treatment response; with approximately one-third of patients failing to achieve adequate glycemic control. Studies have reported the involvement of single nucleotide polymorphisms and their interactions in genetic pathways i.e., pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. This study aims to investigate the association between 19 pharmacogenetics biomarkers and response to metformin treatment.

Methods

MassARRAY panels were designed and optimized by Inqaba Biotechnical Industries, to genotype 19 biomarkers for 140 type 2 diabetic outpatients.

Results

The CT genotype of the rs12752688 polymorphism was significantly associated with increased response to metformin therapy after correction (OR=0.33, 95% CI [0.16–0.68], p-value=0.006). An association was also found between the GA genotype of SLC47A2 rs12943590 and a decreased response to metformin therapy after correction (OR=2.29, 95% CI [1.01–5.21], p-value=0.01).

Conclusions

This is the first study investigating the association between genetic variants and responsiveness to medication for diabetic patients from the indigenous Nguni population in South Africa. It is suggested that rs12752688 and rs12943590 be included in pharmacogenomics profiling systems to individualize metformin therapy for diabetic patients from African populations.

Abstract

Objectives

Cytochromes P450 play a role in human drugs metabolic pathways and their genes are among the most variable in humans. The aim of this study was to analyze genotype frequencies of five common polymorphisms of cytochromes P450 in Roma/Gypsy and Czech (non-Roma) population samples with Czech origin.

Methods

Roma/Gypsy (n=302) and Czech subjects (n=298) were genotyped for CYP1A2 (rs762551), CYP2A6 (rs4105144), CYP2B6 (rs3745274) and CYP2D6 (rs3892097; rs1065852) polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP or Taqman assay.

Results

We found significant allelic/genotype differences between ethnics in three genes. For rs3745274 polymorphism, there was increased frequency of T allele carriers in Roma in comparison with Czech population (53.1 vs. 43.7%; p=0.02). For rs4105144 (CYP2A6) there was higher frequency of T allele carriers in Roma in comparison with Czech population (68.7 vs. 49.8%; p<0.0001). For rs3892097 (CYP2D6) there was more carriers of the A allele between Roma in comparison with Czech population (39.2 vs. 38.2%; p=0.048). Genotype/allelic frequencies of CYP2D6 (rs1065852) and CYP1A2 (rs762551) variants did not significantly differ between the ethnics.

Conclusions

There were significant differences in allelic/genotype frequencies of some, but not all cytochromes P450 polymorphisms between the Czech Roma/Gypsies and Czech non-Roma subjects.

Abstract

Objectives

Valproic acid (VPA) is an anticonvulsant used in several clinical scenarios. VPA has been increasingly associated with intentional or unintentional overdose. In patients presenting with severe VPA overdose, supportive care and airway protection are cornerstones of treatment, while levocarnitine is suggested in patients with hyperammonemia and hemodialysis is recommended in patients with VPA serum concentrations (SC) >1,300 mg/L and presence of cerebral edema or shock. Meropenem is a carbapenem antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity. The pharmacological interaction between VPA and meropenem is characterized by a rapid decrease in VPA concentrations, which contraindicates concurrent use.

Case presentation

The following case report describes the use of meropenem to enhance the clearance of VPA in the case of severe VPA overdose. A patient with altered mental status was transported to the emergency department (ED) after VPA overdose. Meropenem was prescribed for significant elevated VPA SC. An important decline in SC was observed with short-term meropenem dosing, and an improvement in mental status occurred shortly after administration.

Conclusions

Carbapenem therapy has the potential to be used as last line strategy in the management of severe VPA overdose in patients where SC represent a significant risk of toxicity and clinical symptoms suggest difficulty managing the patient.

Abstract

Objectives

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has many vital functions in human body and its endogenous level can be affected either by various diseases or by administrated drugs. This study reveals the effect of atorvastatin, amlodipine and ethoxidol on the endogenous CoQ10 plasma concentration.

Methods

It was determined the total plasma concentration of endogenous CoQ10 in the plasma of 54 healthy individuals and 62 patients with cardiovascular diseases during treatment with various drugs using high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-MS/MS).

Results

It was found that CoQ10 plasma concentration in patients is statistically significantly lower (on average −49.0 Δ%) than in practically healthy individuals. The total CoQ10 plasma level in patients receiving atorvastatin in the complex therapy is statistically significantly lower (−15.2 Δ%), and in patients taking amlodipine or ethoxidol is statistically significantly higher (+18.2 and + 20.2 Δ%, respectively) than in patients of control groups (a group of patients who receive the same drugs, except for the studied one).

Conclusions

The study showed that in patients with CVDs treated with various drugs the CoQ10 plasma level is statistically significantly lower than in practically healthy individuals. So, to avoid the adverse reactions connected with low CoQ10 plasma levels, it is recommended to adjust the therapy to maintain its constant level.

Abstract

Objectives

Self-esteem is the degree to which the qualities and characteristics contained in one’s self-concept are perceived to be positive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the self-esteem scores in phenylketonuria (PKU) patients on “strict”, “loos” and “off diet”. Sixty PKU patients were divided in three equal groups.

Methods

Group a: “on strict”, group b: “on loos” and group c: “off diet”. A special questionnaire for self-esteem scores was created for these patients.

Results

Before psychological support, group a patients demonstrated 6/20 (30%) very high self-esteem, 9/20 (45%) high and 5/25 (25%) moderate. After support 14/20 (70%) were turned to very high, 5/20 (25%) represented high except one whose degrees remained an altered. group b 4/20 (20%) were very high, 7/20 (35%) were high, 3/20 (15%) moderate and the rest of them showed low self-esteem degrees, after support, 10/20 (50%) showed very high, 5/20 (25%) became high, 3/20 (15%) turned to moderate and 2/20 (10%) remained unaltered. Group c, 1/20 (5%) were very high self-esteemed, 7/20 (35%) were high, 6/20 (30%) were moderate and 6/20 (30%) with low self-esteemed, at the end of support, 6/20 (30%) become very high, 8/20 (40%) with high, 4/20 (20.0%), moderate self-esteem whereas the rest were unaltered.

Conclusions

Very high and high self-esteem degrees were demonstrated in patients who follow their PKU diet. Moderate and low self-esteem degrees were predominantly found in patients on loos and or off diet. Psychological supports commonly result in amelioration of self-esteem degrees.

Abstract

Objectives

Blend of seeds and leaves of Picralima nitida herein referred to as West African Durand powder (WDP) was investigated for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties.

Methods

Acute toxic effect of the aqueous extract was evaluated in mice of both sexes. Antinociceptive effect of WDP (100–400 mg/kg) was evaluated in models of acetic acid-induced writhing and thermal nociception on hot plate in mice. Carrageenan-induced paw oedema and air pouch rat models were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract.

Results

WDP (2,000 mg/kg) showed no toxic effect in mice. WDP at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg inhibited abdominal writhings by 59.9, 66.0 and 79.0%, respectively. There was a significant increase in reaction time on the hot plate tests in mice treated with WDP (400 mg/kg). The paw oedema was reduced by WDP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) 5 h post-carrageeenan. Exudate volume was significantly reduced to 39.8 and 44.8% by 200 and 400 mg/kg WDP, respectively. WDP reduced Leucocytes counts (23.3 and 57.1%, respectively) and neutrophil counts (28.1 and 60.0%, as well as reduced nitrites, malondialdehyde levels and increased glutathione concentrations in the air pouch.

Conclusions

These results suggest that aqueous extract of blend of seeds and leaves of P. nitida possesses antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties.

Abstract

Objectives

Due to lack of adequate data on tramadol kinetic in relevance of CYP2D6 toxicity, this study was designed to investigate the effect of CYP2D6 phenotype in tramadol poisoning. The saliva, urine and blood samples were taken at the admission time. Consequently, concentration of tramadol and its major metabolites were measured.

Methods

A pharmacokinetic and metabolic study was developed in cases of tramadol poisoned (n=96). Cases of tramadol poisoned evidenced seizure, hypertension, dizziness, nausea and vomiting symptoms participated.

Results

Female cases showed higher N-desmethyltramadol (M2) tramadol concentrations than male cases: in urine (40.12 ± 124.53 vs. 7.3 ± 7.13), saliva (16.91 ± 26.03 vs. 5.89 ± 7.02), and blood (1.11 ± 1.56 vs. 0.3 ± 0.38) samples. Significant correlation between blood, saliva, and urine concentrations were found (r = 0.5). Based on the metabolic ratio of O-desmethyltramadol (M1) of male (0.53 ± 0.22) and female (0.43 ± 0.26), poisoning and severe symptoms like seizure in female occurs statistically fewer (13.04%) than in male (50.6%). Assessment of CYP2D6 phenotype showed all of the participants were extensive metabolizers (EM) and their phenotype was associated with clinical symptoms.

Conclusions

According to our results, M1 as a high potent metabolite has an important role in toxicity and the likelihood of poisoning in people with EM phenotype. Finally, tramadol metabolic ratio may justify the cause of various symptoms in human tramadol poisoning.

Abstract

Background

Bidens pilosa (BP) possessed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory activities. Its beneficial effects on intestinal inflammation and oxidative stress in 2,4,6 trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis in Wistar rats was evaluated.

Methods

Thirty female Wistar rats weighing 180–200 g were distributed into six groups (n = 5): non-colitic, untreated colitic and colitic rats treated graded doses of methanol extract of BP (50–400 mg/kg). Colitis was induced in rats by intracolonic instillation of 0.2 mL of 40 mg/mL TNBS. BP was administered two days pre-colitis induction and treatments continued until seven days post-colitis induction. A day after the last treatment, rats were euthanized, colon removed aseptically and response to treatment assessed. Phytochemical composition of BP was determined using the GC-MS.

Results

BP significantly reduced macroscopic colonic damage score, weight/length ratio, colonic lipid peroxidation level, leukocytes infiltration, and TNF-α level in comparison to untreated colitic rats (p ≤ 0.008). Similarly, treatment with 200 and 400 mg/kg BP prevented depletion of colonic glutathione level than other treatment groups (p ≤ 0.0002). Histological findings revealed that treatment with 400 mg/kg BP significantly preserved the mucosal epithelial layer. It also prevented ulceration and sloughing of the mucosal layers and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells compared to other treatment groups. Among the 16 compounds identified were oleic acid (6.2%) and n-hexadecanoic acid (2.0%) with antioxidant anti-inflammatory activities.

Conclusions

The beneficial effects of BP in rat colitis might be related to the reduction of leucocytes infiltration, inhibition of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Abstract

Background

In previous studies, we have observed that glutamate antagonists injected within the nucleus accumbens septi (NAS) induced an anxiolytic-like effect in the elevated plus maze (EPM) test in rats. In the present study, the effect of Atenolol, a specific Beta Adreno-receptor antagonist in the EPM was studied in male rats bilaterally cannulated NAS.

Methods

Rats were divided into five groups that received either 1 μL injections of saline or atenolol in different doses (0.75, 1 or 2 μg/1 μL, n=15–16) 15 min before testing.

Results

Time Spent in the Open Arm was modified by treatment (F=4.563, p=0.006, df 3). This was increased by the lowest dose of atenolol (p<0.05), by the medium doses (p<0.001) and also by the highest dose (p<0.01). Time per Entry was modified by treatment (F=4.54, p=0.06, df 3). This parameter was increased by the lowest dose of atenolol (p<0.01), but not for the medium and higher doses.

Conclusions

We conclude that Atenolol beta receptor blockade in the accumbens lead to an anxiolytic-like effect related to an increase in the time spent in the open arm and in the time per entry, showing specific behavioral patterns.

Abstract

Objectives

AAA (Allgrove) syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by cardinal features of adrenal insufficiency, achalasia, and alacrimia.

Case presentation

A 21 year girl of known case of Triple A syndrome was referred for the evaluation of autonomic function. She was born full term with developmental delay and abnormal gait. Esophageal manometry study by pneumatic balloon dilatation revealed the presence of achalasia cardia. She had signs of peripheral neuropathy and had episodes of fainting and suspected orthostatic hypotension. Cardiovascular autonomic function and heart rate variability tests were conducted as per Ewing protocol, revealed that the patient had sympathovagal imbalance and sympathetic dominance.

Conclusions

The presence of autonomic dysfunction adds the 4th A to the Triple A syndrome (Adrenal insufficiency, Achalasia, Alacrimia and Autonomic dysfunction). Noninvasive autonomic function tests are recommended for Triple A syndrome patients to reduce the morbidity associated with autonomic dysfunction.