BACKGROUND. In case of rhinosinusal malignant tumors, it is important to have a unified and simple terminology. The suprastructure refers to the ethmoid sinus, the sphenoid sinus, the frontal sinus and the olfactory area of the nose. The mesostructure includes the maxillary sinus, excepting the orbital wall, and the respiratory part of the nose.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. We will present two clinical cases admitted and surgically treated in our department. The first one is a left-side suprastructure mass in a 39-year-old male patient, with a particular evolution. The second one is a left-side midfacial and suprastructure tumor with 3 prior negative biopsies in a 57-year-old patient. In both cases, we performed an external surgical approach.
DISCUSSIONS. For an external approach in mesostructure malignant tumors, we propose a combined approach using lateral nasal rhinotomies, sub-labial rhinotomies and midfacial degloving. The external approach in malignant tumors of the supra-structure is centred on a classical incision for the frontal sinus or a hemicoronal or coronal approach. There are some clear advantages of the open approach to be considered.
CONCLUSION. The advantages of the external approach are represented by a direct visualization and control of the tumor during the ablative time; a better control for negative margins; a better control of haemostasis; a better chance for en-bloc resection versus piece-meal resection.
Recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis is a disease caused by human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which currently does not benefit from a curative treatment. Due to the fact that HPV has the action of modifying cellular DNA, with changes in the expression of interleukins and interferon, with insufficient maturation of T cells and intracellular overpopulation of immunosuppressive cells, the association of RRP (Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis) with an autoimmune disease may cause particular difficulties in the therapeutic management of patients diagnosed with RRP.
Immunosuppressive medication negatively influences the development of papillomatosis, increasing the number of local relapses and, respectively, the need for surgical intervention due to the increased viral multiplication and the proliferation of papillomatous lesions. In order to exemplify the difficulties encountered in treating RRP associated with an autoimmune disorder, the authors present the case of a 21-year-old patient diagnosed with juvenile recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis genotype 6, with multiple antecedent surgeries, who was diagnosed with pemphigus vulgaris at the age of 19. The peculiarity of the case lies in the difficulty of managing the RRP associated with an immunosuppressive disorder whose therapeutic indication is cortisone and immunosuppressive treatment, which led to exacerbation of viral multiplication and proliferation of papillomatous lesions.
Plasmacytoma is a rare, non-epithelial, malignant tumor, affecting soft or bony tissues, which can have a unique location (solitary or extramedullary solitary plasmacytoma), or multiple (multiple myeloma). In the ENT sphere, it is most commonly encountered in its extramedullary form, which develops in the region of the head and neck, at the level of the submucosa. Most commonly, it affects the elderly, who have cardinal symptoms such as unilateral nasal obstruction, nasal or facial swelling, tissue necrosis or mucosal ulcerations, perforation of the nasal septum with dysmorphia of the nasal pyramid, recurrent unilateral epistaxis. Radiotherapy is the treatment of choice for extramedullary plasmacytoma. The prognosis is a reserved one, the risk of recurrence or conversion to multiple myeloma also existing 15 years after treatment.
BACKGROUND. Polyps, cysts and mucocele are the commonest sinonasal tumors present unilaterally, as well as invasive tumors, such as inverted papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas. On the contrary, Schwannomas are rare lesions found in this area.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. We present a case of a 48-year-old female who presented with a 2-year progressive history of left nasal obstruction, cranio-facial fullness sensation and pain, with intermittent epistaxis. The CT scan of the nose and paranasal sinuses showed complete opacification of the entire left nasal cavity and maxillary sinus, causing a deviated nasal septum to the right side.
RESULTS. The tumor was completely excised endoscopically without any complication. Histopathology was consistent with that of a schwannoma.
CONCLUSION. The diagnosis of sinonasal Schwannomas remains challenging, as it is a rare tumor and sometimes its clinical behaviour and imaging may be misleading. The treatment of choice for paranasal sinus schwannoma is complete excision of the tumor with good prognosis.
Hemorrhagic Hereditary Telangiectasia (HHT) disease, also called Osler-Weber-Rendu (OWR) disease, is a rare and underdiag-nosed genetic disorder characterized by a multisystemic vascular dysplasia. Nosebleeds, acute or chronic digestive tract bleeding and various problems due to the involvement of major organs (liver, lungs, brain) characterize the disease.
Although it was described at the beginning of the 20th century, many patients, GPs and specialists still ignore the disease, its morbidities and the modalities of the treatment.
That is the reason why the authors have decided to publish this review on this familiar, evolving and potentially life-threatening disease, whose management can be sometimes a real nightmare for the clinician.
OBJECTIVES. Reviewing the literature data related to Lindsay – Hemenway syndrome.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar with the key words of “Lindsay-Hemenway syndrome”, “benign positional vertigo”, “vestibular rehabilitation”
RESULTS. Lindsay-Hemenway syndrome is characterized by an association between vestibular neuronitis and BPPV. The specificity of the syndrome consists in the existence of an initial episode of acute vestibular neuropathy manifested by intense vertigo and nystagmus, followed in a variable time frame by episodes of posterior canal BPPV. The treatment of the syndrome consists in a combination of otolith repositioning manoeuvres and vestibular rehabilitation therapy. The physicians involved in treating patients with vestibular disorders should be aware of the existence of this syndrome in order to diagnose and treat the patients accordingly.
CONCLUSION. The Lindsay-Hemenway syndrome is a challenge for the physician. In order to establish a diagnosis, a careful investigation of clinical history and objective examination are needed. The clinician should take into consideration the presence of a sudden vertigo without deafness followed by postural nystagmus, and unilateral labyrinthine hyporeflexia or absence of reflectivity. For a successful therapeutic approach, we should be able to combine manoeuvres of repositioning for BPPV with an appropriate vestibular rehabilitation therapy in order to ensure a correct central compensation of the peripheral unilateral deficit.
BACKGROUND. Mucocele is a benign expansile cyst-like lesion seen in the paranasal sinuses, which has a tendency to expand and erode the surrounding sinus walls. These mucoceles develop as a result of obstruction of the sinus ostium and superadded infection. As such, the frontoethmoidal area is the most common site, followed by the maxillary sinus and the sphenoid sinus. Rarely, mucocele may also develop in abnormally aerated bones, such as middle turbinate (concha bullosa), clinoid process and pterygoid process.
CASE REPORT. We report two infrequent cases of mucocele of concha bullosa, clinically presenting as the cause of nasal obstruction, which were completely removed endoscopically, and patients were symptomatically relieved.
CONCLUSION. Mucocele of the middle turbinate represents a diagnostic challenge to surgeons both in terms of symptoms and risk of complications. Therefore, the condition should be considered as a possible cause of progressive nasal obstruction by otolaryngologists, and careful examination of the nasal cavity is necessary to determine the existence of this rare condition.
The nasal swell body (NSB) is considered to be an enlarged region of the nasal septum, which is located superiorly to the inferior nasal turbinate and anteriorly to the middle nasal turbinate, with a potential effect upon the airflow nasal valve. The histological studies of the NSB demonstrated that it is a glandular formation, not a venous structure, and it is formed by septal cartilage and bone, as well as a thick mucosa. Recent studies emphasized the functional role of the nasal swell body and it is thought to interfere with the nasal airflow and air humidification, due to its proximity to the internal nasal valve and its histological characteristics (venous sinusoids and seromucinous glands). The nasal swell body is strongly related to the presence of rhinosinusal chronic inflammations (allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis) and the septal deviation. In case of the presence of the nasal swell body, surgical treatment is not commonly done, due to the absence of a consensus between the ENT practitioners. Most of them consider surgery as being too aggressive because of the presence of seromucinous glands, with slight impact upon the nasal obstruction. Most probably, the lack of consensus is determined by inconsistent anatomical and histological study results.
OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this paper is to describe a simple and safer silicone tube insertion technique in endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. In our technique, steel wire is inserted into a rigid suction tube (3 mm in diameter) immediately after the medial wall of the sac under endoscopic view. The duration of retrieving the wire from the sac and out of the nasal passage, the number of mucosal lacerations and bleeding were compared with conventional methods such as using retrieval device or forceps.
RESULTS. The duration of retrieving the wire from the sac and out of the nasal passage and mucosal laceration were statistically reduced (P<0.05) in this novel technique when compared with other methods.
CONCLUSION. Sheltering the sharp end of the wire with a suction cannula is a safe and easy method without using any additional tools