The relationship between hormonal contraceptive method use and sexually transmitted infections is not well understood. Studies that implement routine screening for STIs among different contraceptive users, such as the ASPIRE HIV-1 prevention trial, can be useful for identifying potential risk factors of STIs. However, the complex nature of non-random data can lead to challenges in estimation of associations for potential risk factors. In particular, if screening for the disease is not random (i. e. it is driven by symptoms or other clinical indicators), estimates of association can suffer from bias, often referred to as informative sampling bias. Time-varying predictors and potential stratification variables can further contribute to difficulty in obtaining unbiased estimates. In this paper, we estimate the association between time- varying contraceptive use and Sexually transmitted infections acquisition, in the presence of informative sampling, by extending the work Buzkova (2010). We use a two-step procedure to jointly model the non-random screening process and sexually transmitted infection risk. In the first step, inverse intensity rate ratios (IIRR) weights are estimated. In the second step, a weighted proportional rate model is fit to estimate the IIRR weighted hazard ratio. We apply the method to evaluate the relationship between hormonal contraception and risk of sexually transmitted infections among women participating in a biomedical HIV-1 prevention trial. We compare our results using the proposed weighted method to those generated using conventional approaches that do not account for potential informative sampling bias or do not use the full potential of the data. Using the IIRR weighted approach we found depot medroxyprogesterone acetate users have a significantly decreased hazard of Trichomonas vaginalis acquisition compared to IUD users (hazard ratio: 0.44, 95% CI: (0.25, 0.83)), which is consistent with the literature. We did not find significant increased or decreased hazard of other STIs for hormonal contraceptive users compared to non-hormonal IUD users.
This paper is establishing the relationship between the spreading dynamics of the Covid-19 pandemic in Morocco and the efficiency of the measures and actions taken by public authorities to contain it. The main objective is to predict the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic in Morocco and to estimate the time needed for its disappearance.
For these reasons, we have highlighted the role of mathematical models in understanding the transmission chain of this virus as well as its future evolution. Then we used the SIR epidemiological model, which proves to be well suited to address this issue. It shows that identification of the key parameters of this pandemic, such as the probability of transmission, should help to adequately explain its behaviour and make it easier to predict its progress.
As a result, the measures and actions taken by the public authorities in Morocco allowed to record lower number of virus reproduction than many countries.
So, in the case of Morocco, we were able to predict that the Covid-19 pandemic should disappear in a shorter time and without registering a larger number of infected individuals compared to other countries.
Taking selfies is spreading like a mania across the globe. It may positively or negatively affect the self-esteem of an individual.
The present study was undertaken to assess the proportion of medical undergraduates and teaching faculty involved in taking selfies, to compare the pattern of selfie taking among medical undergraduates and teaching faculty and to assess the self-esteem score among them.
The subject consisted of medical undergraduates and teaching faculty of Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore.
A cross-sectional study was carried out. A semi-structured questionnaire was prepared. Self-esteem was assessed by using the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. Information obtained was analyzed using SPSS 11.5.
The study included 366 participants of the study population. The Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale conclude that 96% of the faculty and 84% of the students have normal self-esteem. Around 52.73% of them agree that they find selfie taking can be addictive, 43.72% of them agree that selfie taking can have disastrous effects, sometimes even life threatening and 57.92% of them agree that they enjoy the habit of selfie taking and find entertainment in it.
It was found that most undergraduates and teaching faculty indulge in the act of selfie taking. Students tend to take selfies to share their current lifestyle, whereas faculty take selfies for convenience. It is found that selfies does not affect the self-esteem of an individual as the majority of the population were found to have normal self-esteem.
Changes in human growth and development depend on genetic and environmental factors. In the case of Slovenia, the environmental factors changed as a result of the period of socio-economic transition that the country underwent between 1991 and 2013. The authors used anthropometric techniques to evaluate differences in body height, proportions and sexual maturity in 1,221 adolescents aged 14 in 1993, 2003 and 2013.
Data was collected as a part of the ACDSi study, which has monitored children’s somatic growth and motor development every decade over the last 40 years.
Between 1993 and 2013, a trend (p=0.08) towards increased body height was observed in males. The comparison of age at peak height velocity (PHV) between generations demonstrated a trend (p=0.07) of earlier entry into puberty in adolescents in 2013 compared to those in 1993. The leg-to-body height ratio increased (p<0.05) with every decade in males, while in females it decreased (p<0.05) in 2013. Similar trends were observed in the leg-to-trunk ratio. Contemporary generations experienced PHV at a younger age (p<0.05), which is true for both genders even in adolescents born no more than two decades (1993 (2013) apart. In both generations, females experienced PHV sooner than their male peers.
The authors assume that females of the 2013 generation reached puberty earlier than females of older generations. It is most likely that, unlike females from older generations and unlike males, they were already at the stage of trunk growth at the time of the measurements, which explains the observed changes in their trunk length, leg-to-body height and leg-to-trunk ratios in comparison to earlier generations.
Due to the availability of the EQ-5D-5L instrument official translation into Slovenian its use is widespread in Slovenia. However, the health profiles obtained in many studies cannot be ascribed their appropriate values as the EQ-5D-5L value set does not yet exist in Slovenia. Our aim was to estimate an interim EQ-5D-5L value set for Slovenia using the crosswalk methodology developed by the EuroQol Group on the basis of the EQ-5D-3L Slovenian TTO value set. Our secondary aim was to compare the interim values obtained with the EQ-5D-3L Slovenian values.
To obtain a Slovenian interim EQ-5D-5L value set, we applied the crosswalk methodology developed by the EuroQol Group to the Slovenian EQ-5D-3L TTO value set. We examined the differences between values by comparing the mean 3L and 5L value scores and the distribution of values across all respondents.
By definition, 3-level and 5-level versions have the same range (from 1 to −0.495) and a health state coded 22222 in the 3-level version corresponds to 33333 in the 5-level version. While the addition of a “slight” severity level (22222) in the 5-level version has a low informational value, the addition of a “severe” health state (44444) covers larger range of the scale. The 5-level version results in fewer health states being valued below 0 and above 0.8.
The EQ-5D-5L value set, based on the crosswalk methodology, should be used until a value set for the EQ-5D-5L is derived from preferences elicited directly from a representative sample of the Slovenian general population.
The Slovenian Resolution on the National Healthcare Plan notes that the country’s medical laboratory activities are fragmented, which may result in cost-inefficiency and a reduction in the quality of the services provided. Defining the efficiency of laboratory service providers can therefore help us to pursue the objectives of the Resolution, i.e. to consolidate and integrate laboratory activities.
Using the DEA method, we conducted an analysis of the efficiency of 20 biomedical laboratories in Slovenia, and made a comparison with a “virtual” laboratory, i.e. a merger of laboratories within a selected organisational unit. By testing different DEA models, we sought to determine whether the use of different input variables caused significant differences in the laboratories’ efficiency scores.
The research results show that inefficiency resulting from the size of the units is 1.5 times greater than process inefficiency. Using a non-parametric Wilcoxon Signed Rank test, we determined, at a risk level of 0.05, that there was no difference between the efficiency results when using two different technical efficiency DEA models. When evaluating the virtually merged laboratory, we determined that, under all three models, the virtual laboratory achieved 100% VRS efficiency. However, when the CRS methodology was used, the laboratory showed a certain degree of scale inefficiency.
When evaluating merger of medical laboratories we note that the DEA method is methodologically suitable for evaluating the effects of health policy implementation, and is an appropriate tool for identifying where the field of laboratory medicine might be further developed and improved.
To investigate the correlation between attachment styles and various burnout risk groups (“relaxed”, “wornout”, “challenged” and “burnout”) and whether attachment styles suitably discriminate between individual burnout risk groups.
The study involved 2,320 participants (1,668 women and 652 men), who completed an adrenal burnout syndrome questionnaire, a performance-based self esteem scale, a work addiction risk test and a relationship questionnaire.
A one-way analysis of variance confirmed attachment style differences between burnout risk groups. The challenged and burnout groups differed from the relaxed and wornout groups by having a significantly lower secure attachment style score and a higher insecure (avoidant and preoccupied) attachment style score. The canonical discriminant analysis showed that the predictors (secure, preoccupied and avoidant attachment styles) can be used to appropriately classify 85.4% of respondents in the predicted burnout risk groups.
The study confirmed the hypothesis that two insecure attachment styles (i.e. avoidant and preoccupied) predominate in the challenged and burnout groups, and that a secure attachment style predominates in the relaxed and wornout groups. Burnout syndrome can thus be conceived as the result of excessive and compulsive efforts to retain a relationship that is perceived as insecure or to reduce (excessive) fear of losing this relationship.
Dance-related injuries have become a field of great interest to researchers, with the most commonly reported injuries being those sustained by ballet dancers. However, there is a lack of research into injuries sustained by those who perform modern and hip-hop dance.
A systematic literature review using the MEDLINE research database was performed and a search carried out for full-text studies that investigate injuries in modern and hip-hop dance.
While a total of 74 hits were obtained from various searches, only nine studies were included in the systematic literature review. Six of them examined modern dancers, two examined break dancers and one examined hip-hop dancers. The results show that hip-hop dancers (and especially break dancers) sustain more injuries in comparison to modern dancers. The most common injuries are in the lower extremities, with studies revealing that overuse injuries occur in up to 71% of cases.
The injury incidence rate in hip-hop dance seems to be higher compared to modern dance, chiefly because of the more demanding biomechanics involved and the dance techniques employed. Prevention management can have a positive effect on the number of injuries.
Mathematical modelling can be useful for predicting how infectious diseases progress, enabling us to show the likely outcome of an epidemic and help inform public health interventions. Different modelling techniques have been used to predict and simulate the spread of COVID-19, but they have not always been useful for epidemiologists and decision-makers. To improve the reliability of the modelling results, it is very important to critically evaluate the data used and to check whether or not due regard has been paid to the different ways in which the disease spreads through the population. As building an epidemiological model that is reliable enough and suits the current epidemiological situation within a country or region, certain criteria must be met in the modelling process. It might be necessary to use a combination of two or more different types of models in order to cover all aspects of epidemic modelling. If we want epidemiological models to be a useful tool in combating the epidemic, we need to engage experts from epidemiology, data science and statistics.