Vegetation serves as a universal filter that is capable of protecting the environment from pollution by industrial emissions given the availability of appropriate technical facilities. The aim of this study is to determine the ability of leaves of various species of woody plants growing in the area of sanitary protection zones to accumulate fluorine and to establish the most informative indicators of environmental pollution by its compounds. The object of the study was the species of woody plants growing in the area of protective plantations of a number of enterprises of Zaporizhzhya: Zaporizhzhya Titanium & Magnesium Combine, Zaporizhzhya Aluminium Plant PJSC, Zaporizhzhya Abrasive Plant PJSC, Zaporizhstal PJSC, ‘Zaporizhcoke’ PJSC (KOKS), Zaporizhzhya Ferroalloy Plant PJSC, Zaporizhvohnetryv (‘Vohnetryv’) PJSC, PrJSC ‘Ukrgrafit’ and Zaporizhtransformator PJSC. Under the conditions of sanitary protection zones of enterprises the leaves of woody plants accumulate significantly more fluoride compared to the control specimens. We have established that a gradual accumulation of the element occurs during the vegetation period being the most intense in young leaves. In senescent leaves, the activity of its accumulation begins to diminish. The maximum amount of fluoride was detected by us at the end of the vegetation period. Its highest concentration was found in the leaves of woody plants growing in the forest belt near the Zaporizhzhya Aluminium Plant. According to the level of accumulation of the said phytotoxicant in the leaves of plants growing in the area of sanitary protection zones, industrial enterprises of Zaporizhzhya may be ranked as follows: Zaporizhzhya Aluminium Plant PJSC > Zaporizhzhya Ferroalloy Plant PJSC ≥ ‘Zaporizhcoke’ PJSC > Zaporizhstal PJSC > Zaporizhvohnetryv (‘Vohnetryv’) PJSC > ‘Ukrgrafit’ PJSC> Zaporizhzhya Abrasive Plant PJSC > Zaporizhzhya Titanium & Magnesium Combine > Zaporizhtransformator PJSC. The largest amount of fluorine accumulated by the leaves can be attributed to such tree species as: Catalpa bignonioides, Ailanthus altissima, Acer platanoides, Populus nigra, Armeniaca vulgaris, Tilia cordata, Acer pseudoplatanus, Platanus orientalis, which is a distinguishing characteristic of the sanitary protection zones of various enterprises in the city of Zaporizhzhya. Variations of fluorine accumulation in different experimental plots for the same species of woody plants are expressed in quantitative terms. These plants are capable of being the most efficient at purifying the atmospheric air from gaseous fluoride compounds. The highest coefficient of relative accumulation of fluorine in the leaves is found in the following species of woody plants: Catalpa bignonioides, Ailan-thus altissima, Acer platanoides, Populus nigra, Armeniaca vulgaris, Tilia cordata, Acer pseudoplatanus, Platanus orientalis, thus they have a potential to be considered for use as phytoindicators of environmental pollution by the fluorine compounds. The aforementioned coefficient appears to be the lowest in the following species: Morus alba, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Juglans regia and Fraxinus lanceolata.
The experiment conducted in the Kampinos National Park since 2015 was aimed at assessing the sprouting ability of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) in response to different measures of mechanical control and mycobiota colonizing the dying trees. Basal cut-stump, cutting at ca. 1 m above the ground and girdling were performed on 4 terms, two plots and applied to 25 trees, 600 trees in total. Sprouts were removed every 8 weeks since the initial treatment for 4 consecutive growing seasons, except winter-treated trees. At the end of the fourth season of control, 515 out of 600 trees were dead (86%): 81% on Lipków and 90% on Sieraków plot. Among 18 experiment variants with sprouts removal, 17 showed more than 80% of dead trees. The lowest, 76% share, concerned summer cut-stump at the base of the tree. For winter measures, the share of dead trees was lower in all cases and ranged from 28% to 64% proving that sprouts removal contributes to the drop of sprouting strength and quicker dying of the trees. Almost 80% of trees showed sporocarps that represented 51 taxa of macrofungi in total, including 6 Ascomycota and 45 Basidiomycota. The group of six most frequently encountered fungi includes: Hyphoderma setigerum, Bjerkandera adusta, Peniophora cinerea, Armillaria ostoyae, Nectria cinnabarina, Stereum hirsutum. Both plots had similar share of black cherry individuals with sporocarps of macrofungi, that is, 81% and 78% for Sieraków and Lipków respectively. The share of colonized trees and the number of reported macrofungal taxa increased significantly compared to the year following the treatment. In addition, the composition of macrofungi changed with the progressing dying of trees. These results broaden the knowledge about macroscopic fungi colonising and living on black cherry within its secondary range of distribution. Moreover, one macrofungus and two microfungi new for KNP are reported.
This paper describes the quantitative and qualitative composition of bacteria isolated from soil in the selected sites in the Nida Basin, in places where mycorrhizae and ascocarps of summer truffle (Tuber aestivum) were found, and in a control soil (without truffle). A classic growth culture method was used with Sanger DNA sequencing to obtain quantitative and qualitative measures of bacterial cultures. The obtained results showed differences in bacteriome composition between the case samples, in which summer truffle fructification was observed, and the control samples. Seven classes of bacteria were identified: Actinobacteria, Bacilli, Deinococci, Flavobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. The most numerous bacterial genera were Pseudomonas (class Gammaproteobacteria) – 33%, Streptomyces (class Actinobacteria) – 29% and Bacillus (class Bacilli) – 15%. This research broadens the understanding of individual groups of bacteria accompanying truffles and their potential impact on the formation of summer truffle ascocarps.
The weather conditions determine the dynamic forest fire risk. In Poland, the dynamic forest fire risk is calculated using a method elaborated at the Forest Research Institute. The forest fire risk degree (4-level scale) is calculated every day at 9:00 am and at 1:00 pm during the fire season (1.03 till 30.09) for 60 prognostic zones selected on the basis of stand and climatic conditions. 97% of all annual forest fires occur during the fire season. Surface fires are a significant part of the fires (90%) and occur in forest stands where pine is the dominant species. The purpose of the research was to prepare a new method of forecasting forest fire risk, which would enable a more precise method of evaluation of the risk of an outbreak of fire in relation to the existing and forecast meteorological conditions in forests. The results obtained during testing of this method indicate a high accuracy in forecasting fire risk and a satisfactory precision of formulae for calculating moisture content of pine litter.
The assumptions of the new method included:
–possibility of determining the actual risk of fire for the given area, being the average for all measurement points located on the terrain equally those in which the moisture content measurement of litter has not been performed,
–possibility of forecasting the risk of forest fire for the afternoon in the morning hours of the given day,
–possibility of forecasting fire risk for the following day,
–forecasting moisture content of litter for the afternoon and of the given day and for the following day,
–drawing up a method enabling limitation of operational costs of fire prevention system.
The forests of urbanised areas provide multiple ecosystem services and are highly dynamic. Determining the trends in species composition changes can help to predict their future capacity to fulfil ecological and resource-maintaining functions. We examined the direction of forest successions in the Northeast Moscow region under the canopy of different tree species. Field data were obtained from 78 permanent test plots monitored for more than a 15-year period; field studies were complemented by archival data. The cluster analysis made it possible to divide all plots into five groups by current species composition and structure and into eight groups by the importance of broadleaved species in the undergrowth. Gradual evolution (cohort dynamics) was found to be typical for middle-aged secondary forests; patch dynamics was described in mature stands of late succession species after non-critical natural disturbances; drastic changes were observed in spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands after pest attacks. Two main trends were revealed in species composition shift: restoration of mixed spruce-broadleaved forests and development of lime-dominated broad-leaved forests, the latter being the prevailing one in the stands of composite forest types. Intensive development of oak-associated species is probably related to the climate conditions in the Moscow megacity.
The content of this article may be of interest for researchers studying natural forest dynamics and can be used for prospective planning of target species composition in the forestries of the Moscow region.
Evolutionary processes lead to the survival of individuals best adapted to local environment. This gives rise to allele polymorphism and genetic diversity of populations. Isoenzyme proteins, which are the product of gene expression, are an effective tool for tracking these changes. On the other hand, the reproductive potential of a given population can be assessed based on its ability to produce viable and efficiently germinating seeds. The present results combine molecular analyses of isoenzyme proteins with anatomical and morphological studies of Scots pine seeds (Pinus sylvestris L.). The study was conducted in 6 populations that are characteristic of this species occurrence range in the country. The results confirm the correlation between seed weight and embryo size. They also show a population from northeastern Poland had a higher effective number of alleles and seed with lower germinative energy and capacity. There was genetic homogeneity in all except for the population from Woziwoda, which was significantly different based on the Fst test. The genetic characteristics of Scots pine from Woziwoda may be associated with the lower levels of rainfall that occur there during the growing season. The results improve our knowledge of Scots pine variability and contribute to the discussion of the impact of local environment on genetic variability.
In 2013–2014, a set of 30 pheromone traps baited with synthetic lures attracting I. duplicatus (Duplodor – 15 traps) and I. cembrae (Cembrodor – 15 traps) was installed in 6 altitudinal transects (1000–1400 m a.s.l., every 100 m of elevation) in the eastern, central and western part of the Tatra National Park (TPN) in Poland and operated during the entire growing season. The main aim of the survey was to check if and to what vertical extent these two species of bark beetles, not yet recorded, are presently distributed in TPN. Collected insects, including non-target Scolytinae and Cerambycidae, were determined. Overall 1896 Scolytid bark beetles belonging to 13 species, all occurring in the whole elevation range, were collected. I. duplicatus (28 specimens in total) was collected in the whole elevation profile, similarly as I. cembrae (718 specimens in total). Among Cerambycidae (282 individuals) belonging to 19 species, Rhagium inquisitor and Pidonia lurida, found on all elevations, were the most abundant; 8 species were collected on the highest locality. Pogonocherus decoratus was found for the first time in the Tatra. Results indicate the upward spreading of the studied insects as a possible effect of climate change and the resulting environmental conditions favourable for those organisms.
The aim of the study was to determine the distribution of prevailing forest types within the catchment areas of the biggest rivers in the north-east of Ukraine. During the allocation of the catchment areas of the studied rivers, the MapInfo Professional 12.5 program and the vector map of Ukraine were used. The research covered the forest area (more than 502,000 ha) of the state forest enterprises managed by the State Forest Resources Agency of Ukraine. The studied area located on the tributaries of the Sula, Psel, Vorskla and Siversky Donets rivers within the Poltava, Kharkiv, Sumy, Chernihiv, Kyiv and Cherkasy administrative regions of Ukraine. The analysis of the forest fund was carried out based on the electronic subcompartment database of the Ukrderzhlisproekt Production Association, using the application software and geoinformation technologies. It was revealed that a large variety of forest types in the tributaries of the Sula, Psel, Vorskla and Siversky Donets rivers as well as the prevalence of fresh fertile maple-lime oak and fresh fairly infertile oak-pine forest types (in 75 tributaries of Psel, Vorskla and Siversky Donets rivers) and fresh fertile maple-lime oak and fresh fertile hornbeam oak forest types (in 20 tributaries of the Sula River) are due to the relief, hydrological and soil-climatic conditions of the studied area, as well as anthropogenic factor. Assuming homogeneous natural conditions, an insignificant number of forest types are formed (up to five). For a large variety of natural conditions, there are at least six forest types that should be taken into account during forest management, along with the characteristics of the catchment areas of tributaries. The analysed data on the total number of forest types in the catchments of rivers would be appropriate to use in the future when creating a single list of forest types for the Left-Bank Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine. The prevalence of certain forest types within the catchment areas of tributaries of the Sula, Psel, Vorskla and Siversky Donets rivers directly depends on the soil and climatic conditions, geomorphological structure, relief and anthropogenic influence in the forests. The results should be used in forest management activities to preserve and restore the species diversity of forests within the river catchments.
A one-day-old female Holstein calf was presented with subcutaneous masses spread over the whole body. Macroscopically, the masses were firm in touch, greyish-white in colour, 0.5-2 cm in diameter range. Histopathological examination confirmed the cutaneous Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE). Microscopic examination of the tumor revealed sheets of spindled endothelial cells forming vascular slits. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells and capillaries gave strongly positive reaction for CD31 while vimentin, alpha smooth muscle actin and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 were negative. In this case, macroscopical, detailed histhopathological and immunohistochemical findings of congenital KHE reported firstly in a newborn calf.