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Abstract

Glückshaus is a relatively modern version of the larger family of Games of Seven (games played with two six-sided dice and a stake board with fields usually numbered 2-12, often with an emphasized 7.). This paper looks at various historical versions of the game and shows how the modern Glückshaus version and its pecularities (e.g. a missing field for the number 4) came about when the dice game was combined with a stake board for a card game

Abstract

A large chess variant played on a 12x12 board was inadvertently created by G. H. Verney, author of Chess Eccentricities, who seriously misinterpreted one of his sources, A. van der Linde’s Quellenstudien zur Geschichte des Schachspiels. Despite its serendipitous origins, the game, for which the name Verney’s Duodecimal Chess seems appropriate, is surprisingly playable. A set of rules is suggested since those provided by Verney are incomplete.

Abstract

Le wargame est un outil de réflexion qui emploie des techniques créatives pour stimuler l’imagination des historiens, des décideurs et des analystes dans un but d’identification d’opportunités et de menaces. Son objet est de permettre à ses joueurs de recréer des situations spécifiques et, plus important encore, d’être capable d’explorer ce qui aurait pu (approche historique) ou pourrait (approche prospective) se passer si le joueur décidait de faire les choses différemment.

Issu d’une tradition assez longue de tentatives d’adaptation du jeu d’échecs à la simulation de bataille, le wargame s’applique depuis plus de deux siècles à la modélisation d’affrontements militaires à des fins de formation et d’élaboration de nouvelles stratégies ou tactiques. Par la suite, son champ d’application s’est étendu, il y a un peu plus d’un siècle, à la réflexion historico-militaire et depuis une soixantaine d’années à l’aide à la décision stratégique concernant des affrontements concurrentiels et économiques. Selon les moyens disponibles et les contextes de leurs mises en œuvre, les wargames prennent désormais quatre formes différentes : jeux de rôles de type grandeur nature, simulations informatiques, modélisation à base de figurines (ou sandbox) et modélisation sur des cartes ou plateaux.

Nous nous intéresserons, dans le cadre de ce travail, spécifiquement aux cas des wargames sur cartes et plateaux (board wargames). Nous les aborderons d’abord en tant que moyen de compréhension d’une situation historique et militaire, puis en tant que transposition à des fins d’analyse stratégique concurrentielle. Nous commencerons par en décrire les contours historiques et fondamentaux pratiques. Puis, nous montrerons comment le formateur peut adapter ou concevoir le “jeu” selon la situation qu’il doit modéliser ainsi qu’au public auquel il est destiné. Nous discuterons ainsi de la conception d’un wargame en fonction des objectifs visés, du développement du prototype et de la phase de tests en tant que première confrontation au public ciblé par le formateur. Nous présenterons aussi comment, la modélisation d’un wargame est transposable à la modélisation d’un marché. Au-delà de l’aspect ludique et des objectifs du jeu, nous montrerons comment les participants peuvent prendre part à sa conception. De cette manière, nous aborderons la réflexion autour de la conception du jeu qui, bien menée, permet d’appréhender dans son entier un environnement concurrentiel et ses acteurs et d’en comprendre tous ses mécanismes et ses enjeux.

Abstract

Several scholars have studied Pietro del Monte’s works, but only a few have focused on his military career. This article contextualises his career as a condotierre, primarily by collecting and commenting on narrative sources describing his life. From the Italian and Spanish courts where he mingled with the brightest minds of his time, to the Italian Wars where he met his death on the battlefield, Monte lived as an acting commander, a respected scholar, and a renowned master at arms.

Abstract

The Italian Pietro del Monte left us a wonderful work on the martial arts of the late XVth century. Writing on weapons, gear, and fighting techniques, he gives special attention to horses and horseback fighting. In this succinct article, the goal is to present the two different types of cavalry that are covered directly or indirectly by Monte and to show his wide experience in the field, which led him to suggest some pragmatic techniques and not just write a book showing a wide range of technical and tactical possibilities.

Abstract

The works of Pietro Monte had been forgotten for many centuries, and only recently have their merits been recognised again. This research note presents a newly discovered manuscript, the Libro del exercicio de las armas, a 19th century copy of the Spanish vernacular version of the Collectanea known as the “Escorial Manuscript”. The discovery is introduced by a brief survey of the citations of this manuscript and its source in the historiography and by a map displaying the known printed copies of the Collectanea. A review of the bibliography and provenance of the manuscript contributes to our understanding of its historical importance.

Abstract

The non-lethal simulated training of lethal reality, whether it be single combat or war, was historically a question of life and death.

We provide an analytical framework for evaluating historical precedents in fight simulations by focussing on two key questions: What was the philosophy guiding the conception of reality – in particular, did historical practitioners see reality as deterministic, and if not, how did they see it? And how did the simulations deal with the elements of quantity, quality, timing, and information?

The analysis shows that our ancestors’ perception of the reality of fighting chan-ged over time, as their interpretations of reality for the world at large changed. Considerable intellectual effort and ingenuity were invested into attempts to understand reality and formulate corresponding realistic simulations, making these ludic artefacts reflective, sometimes iconic for, and occasionally ahead of their historical-cultural context. Seemingly irrational phenomena, such as the persistence of lethal duelling, had perfectly pragmatic elements.