Densities of the sodium arsenate aqueous solution with the molality varied from (0.04165 to 0.37306) mol · kg−1 were determined experimentally at temperature intervals of 5 K from 283.15 K to 363.15 K and ambient pressure using a precise Anton Paar Digital vibrating-tube densimeter. The apparent molar volumes (Vϕ), thermal expansion coefficient (α) and partial molar volume were obtained based on the results of density measurement. The 3D diagram of apparent molar volume against temperature and molality as well as the diagram of thermal expansion coefficient and partial molar volume against molality were plotted, respectively. On the basis of the Pitzer ion-interaction equation of apparent molar volume model, the Pitzer single-salt parameters ( and their temperature-dependent correlation F(i, p, T) = a1 + a2ln(T/298.15) + a3(T – 298.15) + a4/(620 – T) + a5/(T – 227) (where T is temperature in Kelvin, ai is the correlation coefficient) for Na3AsO4 were obtained on account of the least-squares method. Predictive apparent molar volumes agree well with the experimental values, and those results indicate that the single-salt parameters and their relational coefficients of temperature-dependence for Na3AsO4 obtained are reliable.
Group theoretical arguments are used to find the subgroup corresponding to symmetry reduction along a particular irreducible representation of a group. The results are used to guide the search for stationary points on the potential energy surface of hydrated copper(I) ion at the HF/6-31G∗, HF/6-31+G∗, HF/6-311+G∗, MP2/6-31G∗, MP2/6-31+G∗, MP2/6-311+G∗, B3LYP/6-31G∗, B3LYP/6-31+G∗, and B3LYP/6-311+G∗ levels. The better levels give the most stable coordination number of two. The effect of desymmetrization on the Cu-O distances and stretching frequencies has been examined.
The use of dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) for studying electrolyte solutions is reviewed, focussing on the authors’ investigations over the last three decades. It is shown that this often-overlooked technique provides powerful insights into the nature of ion-ion and ion-solvent interactions. DRS is revealed to be particularly useful for detection of weak ion association and, due to its unique ability to detect solvent-separated species, the quantitation of ion pairing. It is demonstrated that DRS correctly determines chemical speciation for ion-paired systems where major spectroscopic techniques (NMR, Raman, UV-vis) fail. DRS also provides important insights into ion solvation. In aqueous solutions, it has been used to build up a coherent set of ‘effective’ hydration numbers for ions based on the dynamics of proximate water molecules, and has a unique ability to detect ‘slow’ water resulting from hydrophilic and hydrophobic hydration of solutes. DRS has been especially useful for characterising the behaviour of ionic liquids (ILs), e.g. showing they possess rather low dielectric constants and, surprisingly, contain no significant concentrations of ion pairs. Neat ILs and their mixtures with molecular solvents are shown by ultra-broadband DRS to exhibit extremely complicated behaviour especially at frequencies in the THz region.