In this paper, we provide a new approach for the anionic modification and functional application of nanocellulose. The nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) is prepared from microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and modified by fatty acids (lauric acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid). Ammonium ceric sulfate or hydrogen peroxide/ferrous sulfate being used as an initiator, three kinds of modified nanocrystalline cellulose (MNCC) can be synthesized at low temperature. The terminology for these MNCC is L-MNCC (NCC modified by lauric acid), P-MNCC (NCC modified by palmitic acid) and S-MNCC (NCC modified by stearic acid). Compared with those existing synthesized methods, the reaction condition is mild, and the modified products show strong stability. It can be seen from morphological structure analysis and reaction conditions analysis of MNCC that the original structure of cellulose is changed slightly. And the optimal conditions for preparing MNCC are obtained. The best yields of L-MNCC, P-MNCC and S-MNCC are 54.2 %, 20.9 % and 14.5 %, respectively.
The dimensional stability of paper products is a well-known problem, affecting multiple engineering applications. The macroscopic response of paper to moisture variations is governed by complex mechanisms originating in the material at all length-scales down to the fiber-level. Therefore, a recently-developed method, based on Global Digital Height Correlation of surface topographies is here exploited to measure the full-field hygro-expansion of single fibers, i. e. a surface strain tensor map over the full field of view is obtained as function of time. From the strain field, the longitudinal and transverse hygro-expansion and principle strains can be calculated. Long- and intermediate-duration dynamic tests are conducted on softwood and hardwood fibers. A large spread in the softwood fiber’s transverse and longitudinal hygro-expansion coefficient ratio was found, while hardwood fibers behave more consistently. Computing the principle strain ratios reduces this spread, as it takes into account the variations of the deformation direction, which is directly affected by the micro-fibril angle (MFA). Furthermore, long-duration tests allow identification of the half-times at which the fibers equilibrate. Finally, the determined major strain angles for all fibers are consistent with the MFA ranges reported in the literature.
Based on fitted experimental data, an empirical fractionation model for mini-channel hydrodynamic fiber fractionation (miniFrac) is presented. This model, combined with an optimization procedure, is then used as a design tool to synergize competing fractionation performance characteristics, i. e., product quality, product yield and energy demand. Based on this model, miniFrac is compared to state-of-the-art fiber fractionation technology with respect to (i) long fiber-short fiber fractionation and (ii) fines-fiber fractionation. In terms of fines-fiber fractionation, miniFrac is outperformed by typical micro-hole pressure screening regarding the purity of fines fraction. However, a comparison with a slotted (slot width of 0.2 mm) and a smooth-holed pressure screen (hole diameter of 0.8 mm) shows, that miniFrac is capable of outperforming both systems regarding product quality and energy demand at a comparable product yield. If, in the case of fines-fiber fractionation, reject purity (i. e., fines exclusion) is more important than fines purity (i. e., long fiber remain in the reject), miniFrac is an interesting tool with some key advantages over pressure screens.
Sodium salt scaling, i. e. the formation of doubles salts comprised of sodium, carbonate and sulphate on the heat transfer surfaces, is a common problem that occurs during black liquor evaporation. In this study, experimental results are presented that provide new insights into the formation and composition of such scales and how they are influenced by the addition of tall oil brine. It was found that increased content of sodium carbonate and sodium sulphate in the black liquor increased scaling, while the ratio between carbonate and sulphate had a lesser influence than reported in other studies. Black liquor created loose clay-like scales comprised of aggregated crystals and black liquor, whereas salt solutions created hard mineral-like scales. The scales formed by both the black liquor and the salt solution showed a tendency to fall off during formation after primary nucleation. It was also found that both tall oil soap and alkalized tall oil brine could inhibit the formation of scales. The inhibition effect is stronger if adding the soap or brine just before scaling starts, but also depends on the amount added, the sodium carbonate and sodium sulphate content in the liquor as well as other factors.
During the manufacture of low basis weight tissue paper, it is difficult to efficiently use the dry strength agent (DSA) because a large amount of DSA adsorbed fines releases in forming roll by centrifugal forces. In this study, cationic polyvinylamine (C-PVAm) was used as a DSA in an environment where the retention of fines was weak. Addition of C-PVAm to the thermomechanical pulp (TMP) or TMP mixed with softwood bleached kraft pulp (SwBKP) improved the turbidity of filtrate from sheet former, however, the strength of handsheet paper was similar to that without C-PVAm. When C-PVAm was selectively added to SwBKP as much as 4 %, the tensile index could be improved by approximately 10.6 % without changing the retention of fines. In addition, C-PVAm added before the beating of SwBKP showed better results than C-PVAm added after the beating in terms of fines retention, tensile index, and formation. In particular, the tensile index was improved about 7.7 % by adding of C-PVAm 4 % as is before beating of SwBKP. Consequently, it was found that C-PVAm with a high reaction rate can be added before beating of SwBKP to improve the physical strength.
The pulp and paper industry often encounters challenges that require process improvements to remain competitive. These challenges may include the requirement to meet more stringent environmental regulations, stricter energy policies, or the need to improve product quality, increase production capacity and profitability. As a result, the pulp mills of today have to focus on becoming more efficient by possessing an effective chemical recovery system and reducing chemical losses. The high degree of closure is beneficial for environment, water consumption and mill economy but can upset the Na/S balance and increase the build-up of non-process elements in the system. Installing an acid plant to convert the sulfur containing Non Condensable Gases (NCG) into sulfuric acid will eliminate the NCG as a sulfur input to the recovery cycle, eliminate purchases of sulfuric acid, reduce caustic purchases, and produce additional steam that will positively impact the mill’s heat balance. This paper provides an overview of the OptimumAcid™ technology required to produce sulfuric acid in a pulp mill from NCG, presents some of the unique challenges related to feed variability, and discusses some of the technical features of NORAM’s sulfuric acid OptimumAcid™ process technology and equipment.
Cellulose bromo-isobutyl ester was prepared using filter paper as raw material through esterification reaction with 2-Bromoisobutyryl bromide (BIBB) in N, N-Dimethyl-formamide (DMF). Cellulose esters with different degree of substitution were obtained. FTIR result indicated the successful introduction of bromo isobutyryl group in cellulose to obtain cellulose ester (Cell-Br). The surface of modified filter paper become rough and grooves could be observed by SEM. The thermal stability of the cellulose ester decreased in comparison with unmodified filter paper. Besides, the hydrophobicity of the filter paper was improved and the water contact angle increased from 73.4° to 116.5° with increasing degree of substitution. The water vapor barrier property was improved by 26 %. Furthermore, it was also found the modified filter paper possessed antibacterial activity against S. aureus bacteria. The modified filter paper obtained could be potentially used in food packaging fields and the results provide a simple method to prepare functional filter paper.
The poplar alkaline hydrogen peroxide mechanical pulp (APMP) with the lignin content of 24.63 % was used as raw material, which with lignin content of 10.04 %, 6.33 %, 3.82 %, and 1.14 % were obtained by the acid sodium chlorite method for 1–4 hours respectively. Then, different lignin content APMP were micro-nano processing treated with acidolysis (6.5 M, 9.8 M) or ultra-granular grinding respectively. Afterwards, poplar bleached chemical pulp (BCP) was prepared micro-nano cellulose under the same conditions as the APMP. Then, compared the data of the particle size, specific surface area, fiber morphology and zeta potential of suspensions between micro-nano cellulose products. The results show that the presence of a small amount of lignin (1–4 %) in APMP does not affect the preparation of different scales nano cellulose under different acid concentration conditions. When the lignin content is reduced to below 2 %, the acidolysis is more uniform, stable, and well-dispersed compared to BCP products; when the APMP is processed by the ultra-granular grinding, the higher lignin content, the more obvious cutting effect in the fiber length direction. The characteristics and feasibility of the preparation of micro-nano cellulose by the acidolysis and ultra-granular grinding using APMP with varying degrees of delignification are compared.
Chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP) is often used in central layers of multiply paperboards due to its high bulk and strength. Such a CTMP should consist of well-separated undamaged fibres with sufficient bonding capacity. The basic objective of this work is to optimize process conditions in low-consistency (LC) refining, i. e. to select or ultimately develop new optimal LC refiner filling patterns, in order to produce fibrillar fines and improve the separation of fibres from each other while preserving the natural fibre morphology as much as possible. Furthermore, the aim is to evaluate if this type of work can be done at laboratory-scale or if it is necessary to run trials in pilot- or mill-scale in order to get relevant answers. First stage CTMP made from Norway spruce (Picea abies) was LC refined in mill-, pilot- and laboratory-scale trials and with different filling patterns. The results show that an LR1 laboratory refiner can favourably be used instead of larger refiners in order to characterize CTMP with regard to tensile index and z-strength versus bulk. A fine filling pattern resulted in CTMP with higher tensile index, z-strength and energy efficiency at maintained bulk compared to a standard filling pattern.