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Fundamentals on Nanomaterials Toxicological Assessment
Series: De Gruyter STEM

Abstract

The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of amygdalin on hepatic fibrosis in rats. Amygdalin was purified and identified from the seeds of Amygdalus mongo lica. Sprague Dawley rats in the control and model groups were administered water. Sprague Dawley rats were divided into the low-, middle-, and high-dose amygdalin groups that received 20, 40, and 80 mg kg−1 amygdalin, respectively. whereas the silymarin group was treated with 50 mg kg−1 silymarin. The control and model groups were administered water. Liver tissue analysis revealed significantly lower activities of ALT, AST, ALP, SOD, and MDA in the drug-treated groups compared to the model group. Serum analysis revealed significantly lower HYC and C-IV in the middle-dose amygdalin-treated group compared to the model group. The histopathological changes were less severe in the drug-treated groups as observed by the formation of pseudolobuli and decreased collagen fiber deposition. Hepatic fibrosis-related genes were expressed at significantly lower levels in the amygdalin-treated groups than in the model group. Amygdalin from A. mongolica represents a therapeutic candidate for hepatic fibrosis prevention and treatment.

Abstract

In addition to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), other phytocannabinoids, such as cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabichromene (CBC), also have beneficial effects on human health. A high content of CBG is found in plants with the B0 genotype, whereas CBC is independent of the allelic chemotype locus B. In basic research models such as mice or rats, CBG has demonstrated anticancer properties, particularly against breast cancer. CBG has shown anti-inflammatory effects on murine colitis and on inflammatory bowel disease as well as stimulatory effects on the feeding behaviors of mice. It has also exhibited inhibition of aldose reductase, which is known to cause an accumulation of sorbitol and increase glucose levels in the blood, which may lead to diabetes. Cannabinoid CBC has also shown anti-inflammatory effects and reduced hypermobility in the gut and has displayed potential in vitro effect on adult neural stem progenitor cells. CBC also exerts modest analgesic properties in rodents, as well as anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, pro-apoptotic, and anti-proliferative effects in tumor cells.

Abstract

COVID-19 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020. The disease is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2). The aim of this study is to target the SARS-CoV-2 virus main protease (Mpro) via structure-based virtual screening. Consequently, > 580,000 ligands were processed via several filtration and docking steps, then the top 21 compounds were analysed extensively via MM-GBSA scoring and molecular dynamic simulations. Interestingly, the top compounds showed favorable binding energies and binding patterns to the protease enzyme, forming interactions with several key residues. Trihydroxychroman and pyrazolone derivatives, SN02 and SN18 ligands, exhibited very promising binding modes along with the best MM-GBSA scoring of –40.9 and –41.2 kcal mol−1, resp. MD simulations of 300 ns for the ligand-protein complexes of SN02 and SN18 affirmed the previously attained results of the potential inhibition activity of these two ligands. These potential inhibitors can be the starting point for further studies to pave way for the discovery of new antiviral drugs for SARS-CoV-2.

Abstract

Due to the wide range of biologically active substances, the herbal mixtures can influence the development of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Carbohydrates attract particular attention due to their hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, anticholesterolemic, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and detoxifying activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the content of carbohydrates through their monomeric composition in the herbal mixture samples: a) Urtica dioica leaf, Cichorium intybus roots, Rosa majalis fruits, Elymys repens rhizome, Taraxacum officinale roots, b) Arctium lappa roots, Elymys repens rhizome, Zea mays columns with stigmas, Helichrysum arenarium flowers, Rosa majalis fruits, c) Inula helenium rhizome with roots, Helichrysi arenarium flowers, Zea mays columns with stigmas, Origanum vulgare herb, Rosa majalis fruits, Taraxacum officinale roots, d) Cichorium intybus roots, Elymys repens rhizome, Helichrysum arenarium flowers, Rosa majalis fruits, Zea mays columns with stigmas and e) Urtica dioica leaf, Taraxacum officinale roots, Vaccinium myrtillus leaf, Rosa majalis fruits, Mentha piperita herb, which were used in Ukrainian folk medicine for the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2.

The carbohydrates were separated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after conversion into volatile aldononitrile acetate derivatives. The monomeric composition of polysaccharides was studied after their hydrolysis to form monosaccharides and poly-alcohols.

Quantitative analyses of free carbohydrates showed that the predominant sugars were fructose, glucose and disaccharide – sucrose, in all samples. Concerning the determination of polysaccharide monomers after hydrolysis, glucose was the most abundant in all samples. The chromatographic study revealed a number of polyalcohols that are important for the treatment and prevention of progression of diabetes mellitus and its complications, namely, mannitol, pinitol and myo-inositol.

Abstract

Our study evaluates the effects of sacubitril/valsartan (SAC/VAL) in the rabbit model of doxorubicin-induced heart failure. Twenty rabbits (5 per group) were administered with doxorubicin (DOX, 1.5 mg kg−1, i.v.) to induce heart failure. Specific biomarkers such as BNP, CnT, CRP and ROMs were determined. The cardiac enzymatic anti-oxidant systems were recorded with their electrographic profiles. HR, SBP, DBP and MAP were restored at 5 or 10 mg kg−1 (p.o.) of SAC/VAL compared to DOX, followed by reduced levels of creatinine and BNP (p < 0.001). Significant improvements (p < 0.05) compared to DOX were also noticed in CAT, SOD and LPO with the same doses of SAC/VAL. Specific biomarkers such as BNP, CnT, CRP and ROMs descended significantly (p < 0.001) with treatment when compared to their baseline values. Our findings implied that SAC/VAL treatment reduced the inflammation and oxidative stress to improve the cardiac function.

Abstract

Trichomoniasis is a public health problem worldwide. Trichomoniasis treatment consists of the use of nitroimidazole derivatives; however, therapeutic ineffectiveness occurs in 5 to 20 % of the cases. Therefore, it is essential to propose new pharmacological agents against this disease. In this work, esters of quinoxaline-7-carboxylate-1,4-di-N-oxide (EQX-NO) were evaluated in in vitro assays as novel trichomonicidal agents. Additionally, an in vitro enzyme assay and molecular docking analysis against triosephosphate isomerase of Trichomonas vaginalis to confirm their mechanism of action were performed. Ethyl (compound 12) and n-propyl (compound 37) esters of quinoxaline-7-carboxy-late-1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives showed trichomonicidal activity comparable to nitazoxanide, whereas five methyl (compounds 5, 15, 19, 20 and 22), four isopropyl (compounds 28, 29, 30 and 34), three ethyl (compounds 4, 13 and 23) and one npropyl (compound 35) ester derivatives displayed activity comparable to albendazole. Compounds 6 and 20 decreased 100 % of the enzyme activity of recombinant protein triosephosphate isomerase.

Abstract

Pain is a common and distressing symptom of many diseases and its clinical treatment generally involves analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs. This study evaluated the toxicity of Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. (Aquifoliaceae) aqueous extract (leaves, petioles and branches) and its performance in a nociceptive response. Hepatotoxicity, psycho-stimulant test and evaluation of enzyme markers for liver damage were also tested. Chromatographic analysis by UPLC-MS demonstrated a series of isomeric monocaffeoylquinic acids, isomers of dicaffeoylquinic acid, flavonol glycosides, and saponins. Phase I and II of nociception were obtained for meloxicam, dexamethasone and aqueous Ilex paraguariensis extract. Ilex paraguariensis extract concentration was negatively correlated (R = –0.887) with alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.05) in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity test, indicating hepatoprotective activity of this extract. Ilex paraguariensis extract also presented analgesic properties equivalent to drugs that already have proven efficacy. Notably, the administration of multiple doses of Ilex paraguariensis extract was considered safe from the therapeutic point of view.

Abstract

Melatonin is a hormone that has many body functions and, for several decades, its antioxidant potential has been increasingly talked about. There is a relationship between failure in melatonin production in the pineal gland, an insufficient supply of this hormone to the body, and the occurrence of free radical etiology diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and others. Despite the development of molecular biology, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies, the exact mechanism of melatonin antioxidant activity is still unknown. Nowadays, the use of melatonin supplementation is more and more common, not only to prevent insomnia, but also to slow down the aging process and provide protection against diseases. The aim of this study is to get acquainted with current reports on melatonin, antioxidative mechanisms and their importance in diseases of free radical etiology.