This paper analyzed the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) and power supply on human capital development in Nigeria as an emerging market economy. The study adopted the Classical Linear Regression Model for the empirical analysis. The result showed that ICT, power supply (proxied by electricity consumption) and population impact positively on human capital development, while infant mortality has a negative impact on human capital development in Nigeria. The impact of ICT on school enrolment suggests that technology is fast evolving and new technologies are preferred to old ones. The study, therefore, recommended that Nigeria should follow in the trend of ICT globally in harnessing her human capital endowments. In conclusion, the Nigerian government should harness her ICT and electric power potentials and develop the human capital available to her to prevent the emigration of her human resource endowment to more resilient and promising economies.
This article revisits the link between disaggregated Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows and sectorial growth using the panel dataset of 25 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries for the period 1990 to 2017. It adopted the panel fixed effect and Feasible Generalized Least Squares Approach in its analysis. The findings show that disaggregated FDI inflows have the potential to improve growth in the OECD area with adverse effects on domestic investment and inflationary pressure. Additionally, the results further indicate that disaggregated FDI inflows have a positive and significant relationship on the service and manufacturing sector but with no evidence shown on the agricultural industry. Thus, the study concludes that efficient reallocation of FDI resource(s) among sectors will not only boost output growth but also impact on the real economy. However, the necessary policy strategy to regulate this inflow is vital to mitigate its negative impact on domestic investment and inflation pressure.
After 1990, the problem of finding econometric models to assess the influence of economic development on the environment becomes a global goal, a central element of regional, national and Community policies. A perception on the evolution of global climate change and on the impact of human activity on them has been determined by the hypothesis that in the early stages of economic development, pollution and incomes are growing almost simultaneously, and beyond a certain level of incomes, the trend is reversing, therefore at high levels of incomes and economic growth occur improvements in environmental conditions. In this paper, we aim to analyze the relationship between the level of pollution (CO2 emissions) and revenues (GDP per capita) using the Kuznets Environmental Curve (EKC). To apply the econometric model, two indicators were used: CO2 emissions and GDP per capita, using a panel analysis for the period 2000 - 2016, which included 31 European countries and 527 observations. The article contributes to the development of econometric applications based on panel data and the Kuznets Environmental Curve.
Capabilities of African businesses in a transformative role in solving the continent‘s challenges are underestimated and misunderstood. This study examined ease of doing business and financial development from a demand following hypothesis in the West African sub-region, employed Structural Equation Model covering the period of 2004 - 2017. Ten ease of doing business indicators and five distinct financial (capital market) development variables from the World Bank database were used. Findings indicate weak demand following the hypothesis of capital market development: positive and negative, depending on the measure of capital market development from the ease of doing business for West African countries majorly because of inadequate electricity. The indirect effect of the construction permit, property registration, access to credit, minority investors‘ protection and cross-border trading are indirectly significant to capital market development while starting a business, tax-paying, contract enforcement and settling insolvency are insignificant. The study recommended roadshow by West African capital markets to improve the listing of companies and the government should improve on the electricity supply.
The purpose of this work is to present objectively and documented the evolution of Romania within the Council of Mutual Economic Aid (C.M.E.A. or C.O.M.E.C.O.N.) during 1949-1965. Choosing this period of time is not random: in 1949 COMECON was established at the initiative of Moscow, and the year 1965 represented the peak of the “dissidence” politics of Romania within the Council. The Romanian economy after the Second World War followed largely the same path as the other economies in Eastern Europe that entered the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union. The war and the new international situation in which Romania found itself at its end determined a dramatic rupture with the economic model followed in the interwar period. In the run-up to the end of the world conflict, the main interest of the hegemonic power in Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union, was to benefit from the resources of the countries in the area to compensate for the immense damage caused by the war. The exploitation of Eastern European economies intensified after Moscow became aware of the impossibility of obtaining substantial war reparations from Germany.
The addition of Generation Z/Centennials to the workplace landscape will bring about new challenges for the management of any organization. To tackle the changing work environment and workforce, we conducted a survey-based empirical exploratory study among students in economics from two universities located in the western part of Romania. Our study proposes an alternative view of the motivational potential, including the feeling of belonging to an organization in work settings. The aim was to explore the potential for the feeling of belonging to play the role of mediator between four distinct career attitudes and the turnover intention in the specific case of Romanian Generation Z members. Additionally, we investigated which variables are significant predictors for the feeling of belonging to an organization. The results indicate that is efficient to invest in creating belongingness for those Generation Z members inclined towards making moves between jobs and organizations (OMPA), for those who present the mental capacity to be mobile (BMA) and for those who can be adaptive in terms of performance and learning demands (SDA). For those Romanian Generation Z members who use their internal values to provide guidance and measure for success, including the feeling of belonging to an organization in work settings seems to be inefficient.
The purpose of this article is to determine the influence of the VAT rates variation, on different fields of activity of national economy, on the damage caused to the state's consolidated budget, from the point of view of the damage caused and damage recovered the damage that is caused by economical-financial offenses. Between 2011 and 2019, the VAT rate registered a continuous decrease from 24% to 19%, which significantly reduces the amount of damage caused and recovered.
Our study intends to point out the fact that in Romania, the various VAT rate had a major income on the damage caused as well as the damage recovered, thus leading to a decrease in several fields of activity. On the opposite side, there were fields of activity where a major increase of damage was registered, considering that the VAT rate decreased all along the period of time analyzed, such is the case of recycled materials. In some cases, the VAT decrease determined significant diminution of the damage caused and not of the damage recovered and in other cases, it had an effect only on the damage recovered or had no effect at all.