The pulp and paper industry often encounters challenges that require process improvements to remain competitive. These challenges may include the requirement to meet more stringent environmental regulations, stricter energy policies, or the need to improve product quality, increase production capacity and profitability. As a result, the pulp mills of today have to focus on becoming more efficient by possessing an effective chemical recovery system and reducing chemical losses. The high degree of closure is beneficial for environment, water consumption and mill economy but can upset the Na/S balance and increase the build-up of non-process elements in the system. Installing an acid plant to convert the sulfur containing Non Condensable Gases (NCG) into sulfuric acid will eliminate the NCG as a sulfur input to the recovery cycle, eliminate purchases of sulfuric acid, reduce caustic purchases, and produce additional steam that will positively impact the mill’s heat balance. This paper provides an overview of the OptimumAcid™ technology required to produce sulfuric acid in a pulp mill from NCG, presents some of the unique challenges related to feed variability, and discusses some of the technical features of NORAM’s sulfuric acid OptimumAcid™ process technology and equipment.
Cellulose bromo-isobutyl ester was prepared using filter paper as raw material through esterification reaction with 2-Bromoisobutyryl bromide (BIBB) in N, N-Dimethyl-formamide (DMF). Cellulose esters with different degree of substitution were obtained. FTIR result indicated the successful introduction of bromo isobutyryl group in cellulose to obtain cellulose ester (Cell-Br). The surface of modified filter paper become rough and grooves could be observed by SEM. The thermal stability of the cellulose ester decreased in comparison with unmodified filter paper. Besides, the hydrophobicity of the filter paper was improved and the water contact angle increased from 73.4° to 116.5° with increasing degree of substitution. The water vapor barrier property was improved by 26 %. Furthermore, it was also found the modified filter paper possessed antibacterial activity against S. aureus bacteria. The modified filter paper obtained could be potentially used in food packaging fields and the results provide a simple method to prepare functional filter paper.
The poplar alkaline hydrogen peroxide mechanical pulp (APMP) with the lignin content of 24.63 % was used as raw material, which with lignin content of 10.04 %, 6.33 %, 3.82 %, and 1.14 % were obtained by the acid sodium chlorite method for 1–4 hours respectively. Then, different lignin content APMP were micro-nano processing treated with acidolysis (6.5 M, 9.8 M) or ultra-granular grinding respectively. Afterwards, poplar bleached chemical pulp (BCP) was prepared micro-nano cellulose under the same conditions as the APMP. Then, compared the data of the particle size, specific surface area, fiber morphology and zeta potential of suspensions between micro-nano cellulose products. The results show that the presence of a small amount of lignin (1–4 %) in APMP does not affect the preparation of different scales nano cellulose under different acid concentration conditions. When the lignin content is reduced to below 2 %, the acidolysis is more uniform, stable, and well-dispersed compared to BCP products; when the APMP is processed by the ultra-granular grinding, the higher lignin content, the more obvious cutting effect in the fiber length direction. The characteristics and feasibility of the preparation of micro-nano cellulose by the acidolysis and ultra-granular grinding using APMP with varying degrees of delignification are compared.
Chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP) is often used in central layers of multiply paperboards due to its high bulk and strength. Such a CTMP should consist of well-separated undamaged fibres with sufficient bonding capacity. The basic objective of this work is to optimize process conditions in low-consistency (LC) refining, i. e. to select or ultimately develop new optimal LC refiner filling patterns, in order to produce fibrillar fines and improve the separation of fibres from each other while preserving the natural fibre morphology as much as possible. Furthermore, the aim is to evaluate if this type of work can be done at laboratory-scale or if it is necessary to run trials in pilot- or mill-scale in order to get relevant answers. First stage CTMP made from Norway spruce (Picea abies) was LC refined in mill-, pilot- and laboratory-scale trials and with different filling patterns. The results show that an LR1 laboratory refiner can favourably be used instead of larger refiners in order to characterize CTMP with regard to tensile index and z-strength versus bulk. A fine filling pattern resulted in CTMP with higher tensile index, z-strength and energy efficiency at maintained bulk compared to a standard filling pattern.
Paper has been the most significant carrier of written information for many centuries. To prolong the life expectancy of papers, the polyurethane based on nanosilica was used to strengthen the paper fibers in this work. The relation between the mass concentration of polyurethane based on nanosilica and the specific properties of papers (e. g., folding endurance, tensile strength, tearing strength, whiteness and glossiness) were investigated. In addition, the effect of polyurethane based on nanosilica on the acid/alkali resistance and ageing resistance were studied. The results showed that polyurethane based on nanosilica could significantly improve the mechanical properties and ageing resistance of papers.
A high resolution rotary encoder and a piezo electric force sensor are implemented in a 16-inch laboratory-scale low consistency refiner to explore the effect of plate gaps on bar-force profiles. The sensor replaces a short length of a stator bar and measures normal and shear forces applied during the passage of each rotor bar. The rotary encoder data is used to locate the rotor bars relative to the stator bar in which the sensor is located. Previous work with this type of force sensor focuses primarily on the distribution of the maximum force measured during the passage of each rotor bar over the sensor or bar passing event, BPE. In this work, force profiles for bar passing events are registered to the position of rotor bars relative to the stator bar in which the sensor is located. These registered force profiles are measured for a range of plate gaps and two different pulp furnishes. The angular reference provided by the encoder makes it possible to generate mean force profiles. As force data for individual BPEs is highly variable, these mean force profiles have potential to shed light on the fundamental mechanisms of mechanical refining. For large gaps, there is a late peak in the force profiles that occurs toward the end of the bar passing event. For gaps that are less than the critical gap, below which fiber cutting occurs, there is an early peak in the force profiles that occurs at the start of the bar passing event. It is hypothesized that the early peak represents the corner force and, therefore, that corner force is causal in the onset of fiber cutting. To explore this hypothesis, a model is presented connecting corner force and friction force to the progression geometric variables during the bar passing event such as the bar edge length engaged at any point in the bar passing event and the area covered by the rotor bar on the force sensor at any point in the bar passing event.
The extraction of lipophilic wood extractives from pulp and paper process waters proves to be a challenging task, due to harsh and alternating process and sample conditions. This study has determined the potential use of polymeric sorbents for solid-phase extraction (SPE) and compared to classical silica-based reversed-phase packed columns, with polymeric hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced (HLB) cartridges being the sorbent with the most potential. Recovery functions were obtained with an internal standard mixture representative for the main lipophilic wood extractive groups, which are fatty acids and alcohols, sterols, sterol esters and triglycerides. The impact of pH, sample volume and sample matrix, expressed as TOC and cations, on the retention behavior of lipophilic extractives during SPE of industrial samples were determined with polymeric HLB sorbent. High variations in the composition of pulp mill matrices led to different optimal extraction conditions. Thus, a new SPE protocol was developed, which bypasses matrix interferences and omits the loss of analytes due to sample preparation. The method is applicable to different pulp mill effluents with large discrepancies in pH and sample matrices, resulting in recoveries >90 % with RSD <5 % for all lipophilic wood extractives.
This paper presents a model for design optimization of pulp mill steam utility systems subject to variations in energy prices and steam demands. A Scandinavian Kraft pulp mill is used as case study to investigate investment opportunities in lignin extraction and new turbines. The model enables solutions to be identified that are more flexible than the solutions that would have been identified with a corresponding model using, for example, annual average values for key input data. The results from the case study show that lignin extraction has a potential to contribute to flexibility in pulp mill electric power production under certain conditions provided that the mill invests in both lignin extraction and condensing turbine capacity. However, the potential electric power production flexibility will vary over time. In the studied mill, with a capacity increased to around 1.3 million tonnes/a of pulp, it is estimated to vary between 15 and 30 MW. Furthermore, investment in new condensing turbine capacity only seems to be attractive if electricity prices that are considerably higher than the spot prices of recent years are assumed. Such prices may occur if there is a clear value of tradable electricity certificates or if future electricity prices rise significantly.
The present study analyzes the composition of pine wood cultivated on artificial plantations in the Leningrad Oblast (Region). Comparing to pine wood from natural stands, a smaller heartwood zone along the height of the pine trunk and a lower content of resinous substances are noted. The content of cellulose and lignin in the heartwood and sapwood of pine is distributed differently along the trunk. The distribution of pentosans and water-soluble substances in the heartwood and sapwood along the trunk is associated with the lignin complex. The component composition of the studied pine wood from planted stands is quite uniform in its indicators if compared to the wood of older natural stands. Sulphate pulping of planted pine wood showed a higher yield of technical cellulose than the average yield from wood obtained at natural stands of the studied region.
Paper has a high value of culture, history and scientific research as the cultural carrier of historical inheritance. However, with the passage of time and the change of environment, many paper files are aging and damaged. Therefore, it is of great significance to carry out the protection of paper archives. Chitosan, a natural material, has a good compatibility with paper fibers. In this paper, chitosan (CS) was modified by epoxy cyclohexane (CHO) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) to prepare CS-CHO-g-PMMA emulsion. CS-CHO-g-PMMA was applied to paper protection, and the effects of CS-CHO-g-PMMA on heat aging resistance, reversibility and acid-base resistance were investigated. In order to improve the mechanical strength of paper, CS-CHO-g-PMMA and phosphate ester starch (HPDSP) were blended to determine the optimum ratio. The results showed that the degradation rate of paper sample was slowed down obviously and the coating had certain reversibility. Acid-base resistance experiment showed that CS-CHO-g-PMMA could effectively resisit corrosion of external acid-base to protect the paper. The best combination ratio between CS-CHO-g-PMMA and HPDSP was: m (CS-CHO-g-PMMA): m (HPDSP) = 5:2. Under this compound ratio, the performance indexes of the paper met the requirements, conforming to the “repair as old, keep the original” and other requirements.