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Abstract

Introduction

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a worldwide demyelinating polyradiculopathy and polyneuropathy. Currently, there is no specific drug for GBS, and established treatment is generally based on immune-modulating treatment with plasma exchange or intravenous immunoglobulin in combination with supportive care. This study aimed to investigate the efficiency of integrated Chinese and Western medicine for acute GBS treatment.

Methods

We enrolled 73 subjects, and randomly divided them into two groups: 35 cases in the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) group, and 28 in the Control group. The Control group was treated with the common Western medicine for one month; and the TCM group was administrated with one month of common treatment combined with TCM medication.

Results

Compared to the controls, TCM significantly enhanced the treatment efficiency in symptom expression, including the TCM syndrome score, the activity of daily living score, Hughes functional score and sensory dysfunction assessment. The total effective rate of the TCM group was 94.29%, significantly better than controls (78.59%). Moreover, TCM provide better improvement in motor nerve conduction functions (distal motor latency and motor conduction velocity) and sensory nerve conduction functions (sensory conduction velocity and sensory nerve action potential) in median nerve, ulnar nerve, and common fibular nerve.

Conclusion

When combined with TCM administration, the GBS treatment could acquire better outcomes.

Abstract

Movement disorders post-amputation are a rare complication and can manifest as the jumping stump phenomenon, a form of peripheral myoclonus. The pathophysiology remains unknown and there is currently no standardized treatment. We describe the case of a 57-year-old male with unremitting stump myoclonus, starting one month after transtibial amputation, in his residual limb without associated phantom or neurological pain. The consequence of the myoclonus was a reduction in prosthetic wearing time. Failure to respond to oral medication led us to attempt the use of botulinum neurotoxin Type A injections in the involved muscles of the residual limb. Injection trials, over a two-year period, resulted in an improvement of movement disorder, an increased prosthetic wearing time and a higher satisfaction level of the patient. Injection of botulinum toxin type A should be considered as an alternative treatment for stump myoclonus to improve prosthetic wearing time and comfort.

Abstract

Neuroglial cells have a high level of plasticity, and many types of these cells are present in the nervous system. Neuroglial cells provide diverse therapeutic targets for neurological diseases and injury repair. Cell reprogramming technology provides an efficient pathway for cell transformation during neural regeneration, while transcription factor-mediated reprogramming can facilitate the understanding of how neuroglial cells mature into functional neurons and promote neurological function recovery.

Abstract

Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is rare. And the symptoms of PCNSL are atypical, it is extremely easy to be misdiagnosed as other diseases. However, early treatment is crucial which is requesting early diagnosis. We report a case of a 47-year-old man who was initially diagnosed as neuromyelitis optica (NMO) on the basis of clinical findings, slightly high Aquaporin4 (AQP4) (1:10) and high signals of magnetic resonance imaging. Though his symptoms progressively improved after steroid pulse treatment, but worse when steroid was decreased to 40 mg per day. We considered the patient should be diagnosed as PCNSL. After the examination of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and positron emission tomography (PET), the results indicated PCNSL was most possible. Therefore we gave him stereotactic biopsy of deep of supratentorial, which showed non-Hodgkin malignant B-cell lymphoma.

Abstract

Cannabis (also known as marijuana) is the most frequently used psychoactive substance globally. Cannabis exerts therapeutic functions for many indications and has vast potential as a health and wellness product. Advances in our understanding of the composition and pharmacological properties of cannabis have revealed interactions between cannabis, an individuals’ circadian rhythms and and their endocannabinoid signaling. Exogenously administered cannabinoids can bidirectionally entrain central and peripheral clocks that comprise circadian rhythms, and malfunctions in the endocannabinoid system are reported to impact neurological processes. Therefore, it is necessary to account for the circadian rhythm when designing clinical trials examining the pharmacological properties of cannabis-based products for health and wellness to limit its potential confounding impact on results. Consideration of the entrainment capabilities of the endocannabinoid system is warranted when designing clinical trials.

Abstract

Objective

The aim of this study was to explore, in a sample population of people with schizophrenia (PWS), the role of the anticholinergic burden on the perception of oral health-related quality of life (OHrQoL) in France.

Methods

A pilot study was performed between March 2014 and January 2016. PWS were recruited from a population in Côte d’Or department in France. Dental status was investigated using the Decayed, Missing, or Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, the Xerostomia Index (XI), and the Global Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) for OHrQoL. The anticholinergic impregnation score was recorded using the anticholinergic impregnation scale (AIS).

Results

A sample of 62 people was selected. The DMFT score was 16.5± 8.7, the XI score was 22.9±7.8, the GOHAI score was 43.0±8.8, and the AIS score was 3.1±2.8. In total, 169 drugs were prescribed to the people of our sample, and 114 different anticholinergic drugs were observed. The most frequently used anticholinergic drugs (51.40%), in the study had a low antimuscarinic potency (1 point according to AIS scale). The multiple linear regression model showed that the OHrQoL scores were significantly lower when the DMFT scores, XI score, and anticholinergic scores were high.

Conclusions

This pilot study highlighted the potential role of the anticholinergic burden on the OHrQoL of PWS. A study with a validated specific scale for the OHrQoL and a standard anticholinergic burden scale should be conducted to clarify the role of anticholinergic drugs on the OHrQoL for PWS.

Abstract

Background

Pupil activity has been widely considered as a “summed index” of physiological activities during cognitive processing.

Methodology

We investigated pupil dilation during retrieval of autobiographical memory and compared pupil diameter with a control condition in which participants had to count aloud. We also measured pupil diameters retrieval of free (i.e., first memory that comes to mind), positive, and negative memories (memories associated, respectively, with the words “happy” and “sad”).

Results

Analyses demonstrated larger pupil diameters during the free, positive, and negative autobiographical memory retrieval than during the control task. Analyses also demonstrated no significant differences in pupil diameters across the three autobiographical memory conditions.

Conclusion

These outcomes demonstrate that, compared with counting, autobiographical retrieval results in a larger pupil size. However, the emotional valence of memories yields non-significant effect on pupil diameters. Our findings demonstrate how autobiographical memory retrieval yields pupil dilation.

Abstract

Background

Chronic subdural hematoma (CSH) is still an important neurosurgical problem and the number of patients increases despite the progress in early diagnosis of cerebral lesions.

Methodology

We analyzed a group of 700 consecutive patients treated in neurosurgical departments for CSH. Clinical state on admission was evaluated according to the Markwalder scale, all patients had CT studies and were operated using craniotomy or burr holes with closed system drainage techniques.

Results

More than 50% had extensive intracranial bleeding, almost half of the patients were treated with oral anticoagulants. The patients with extensive fresh bleeding were in significantly worse states on admission and were treated by craniotomy and external capsulectomy (42%). All the others had burr holes and closed system drainage of the subdural space. Results of treatment were acceptable, 2% died, and 1.5% remained vegetative, due to massive hemorrhage and severe neurological deficits on admission.

Conclusions

Despite a progress in diagnosis, CSH still remains an often cause of severe intracranial complications. The rising number of occurrences of this lesion is strictly connected with a wide use of oral anticoagulants. Surgical removal of CSH still remains the best type of treatment for such lesions.

Abstract

Aromatase and seladin-1 are enzymes that have major roles in estrogen synthesis and are important in both brain physiology and pathology. Aromatase is the key enzyme that catalyzes estrogen biosynthesis from androgen precursors and regulates the brain’s neurosteroidogenic activity. Seladin-1 is the enzyme that catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of cholesterol, the precursor of all hormones, from desmosterol. Studies indicated that seladin-1 is a downstream mediator of the neuroprotective activity of estrogen. Recently, we also showed that there is an interaction between aromatase and seladin-1 in the brain. Therefore, the expression of local brain aromatase and seladin-1 is important, as they produce neuroactive steroids in the brain for the protection of neuronal damage. Increasing steroid biosynthesis specifically in the central nervous system (CNS) without affecting peripheral hormone levels may be possible by manipulating brain-specific promoters of steroidogenic enzymes. This review emphasizes that local estrogen, rather than plasma estrogen, may be responsible for estrogens’ protective effects in the brain. Therefore, the roles of aromatase and seladin-1 and their interactions in neurodegenerative events such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), ischemia/reperfusion injury (stroke), and epilepsy are also discussed in this review.