The present work provides a thorough description of the preparation of two cellulose anion exchange resins. In addition, the application of the prepared resins for treatment the uranium-contaminated wastewater. In the preparation, the first resin was cellulose reacted with 0.3 M HNO3 to produce Activated Cellulose (AC), while the second was AC treated with sodium metasilicate and phosphoric acid to yield Silica Grafted Cellulose (SGC). The efficiency of the two prepared resins for uranium adsorption from aqueous solution was testifying on a batch scale. In solutions of pH ranging from 4 to 7, results showed a high exchange rate and uptaking capacity up to 105 mg/g. However, the addition of NO3−, Fe3+ and Th4+ ions to the target media has an adverse impact on the uranium sorption for AC adsorbent. Otherwise, the addition of uranyl sulfate complexes could ameliorate Fe3+ and Th4+ adsorbed into the SGC.
In this research, the influence of γ-irradiation on the optical and structural properties of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles was studied. The MgO nanoparticles were irradiated with doses 100 Gy, 1 kGy, 10 kGy and 20 kGy from 60Co source. The as-synthesized samples of MgO nanoparticles prepared by the sol-gel technique were analyzed by XRD which suggested the double phase; cubic and hexagonal structures of the material. The crystal defects that produced in the cubic and hexagonal lattice were studied before and after 60Co γ-irradiation in a gamma cell by different dose rates in order to report the changes in structural properties of the MgO nanoparticles. The irradiated and un-irradiated samples were characterized by XRD and UV–Vis. The XRD pattern of MgO nanoparticles is showed that the crystal size of MgO nanoparticles being increased with increasing the γ-ray dose rate. For optical absorption, the UV–Visible absorption spectra of MgO nanoparticles are showed that when the dose rate is increased, the value of band gap is decreased. Also, the experimental values of the mass attenuation coefficient of MgO nanoparticles have been calculated before and after γ-irradiation by using the gamma spectroscopy method. Therefore, the results are showed that γ-ray irradiation has various effects on structural, morphological and optical properties.
The current study covers the effect of gamma rays on a natural biopolymer Gum Arabic (GA). Gum acacia has a very wide range applications in various fields, that a comparison between two dosimetry systems; the first system depends on the radiolysis of GA (mixing poly-vinyl alcohol) as a thin-film dosimeter. The second system depends on the same material GA as solutions dosimeter, which is more sensitive to γ-radiation due to free mobility of free radicals released by the action of gamma rays. The prepared GA/film/solutions have a considerable peak at 289 nm, which increases (cross-linking of GA polymer) upon irradiation until 28 and 6 kGy for two systems, respectively in case of the first step. However, upon increased the absorbed doses and the intensity of the signal decrease with increasing radiation dose (degradation of GA polymer) up to 80 and 15 kGy for film and solutions. Radiation chemical yield G-(value); dose-response function; gamma radiation sensitivity; also pre- and post-irradiation stability under various conditions were illustrated.
The extraction of U(VI) from aqueous nitric acid solutions with pillararene-based phosphine oxide (L) and [C8mim][NTf2] ionic liquid dissolved in 1,2-dichloroethane was explored. A great positive impact in this system was observed. The effect of IL concentration in the organic phase and HNO3 concentration in the aqueous phase is considered. The distribution ratios of U(VI) were significantly enhanced upon adding a small amount of ionic liquid as compared with organic diluent. The extraction system was also examined for its ability towards extraction of lanthanides and Th4+. The results revealed higher separation factors towards UO22+ over Th4+ in the presence of ionic liquid compared with organic diluent. Other factors such as C8mim+ and NTf2− have also been considered. This extraction system has shorter equilibrium time as compared with in IL diluent. Stripping experiments showed almost quantitative back extraction of UO22+ within two stages. With high selectivity towards UO22+ and efficient back extraction, this new POP5A-ionic liquid-organic diluent system shows promise for future application of uranium recovery.
In the current study, we employ the polyvinyl alcohol doped with nickel sulphate (PVA-Ni+2) as a new film for monitoring the absorbed dose in radiation processing facility. The effect of irradiation doses on the structure of PVA-Ni+2 composite films was analyzed through Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction techniques. The PVA-Ni+2 composite films have a response curve that extends from 5 to 60 kGy and labeling character figured through color change from pale green to intense purple color on exposing to gamma photons. Although the films are dose rate dependent, the films have excellent post stability.
Scandium-47 is one of the most useful radioisotopes which is gaining great importance in cancer theranostics applications due to its favorable nuclear and chemical properties. MCNPX2.7.0 code was used to simulate the neutron activation of natural calcium target positioned at a thermal neutron flux of 1.8 × 1014 n cm−2 s−1 in the Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2). The burn card was used to calculate 47Ca and 47Sc radioactivities during 3 days irradiation and 20 days post-irradiation. The undesirable impurities generated during this period were also calculated. The obtained calculations were found to be in agreement with the experimental measurements. The distribution coefficient value (Kd) of 47Sc(III) as well as 47Ca(II) ions was determined using the commercially available ion-exchanger Chelex 100 in HNO3 and/or HCl media. Radiochemical separation of 47Sc(III) from 47Ca(II) was studied using HNO3 and HCl solutions and the results showed that HNO3 is a better medium than HCl for complete retention and recovery of 47Sc(III), where the recovery yields were 85 ± 1.2 and 95 ± 0.87 % using 1 M HCl and 1 M HNO3 solutions, respectively. The recovery yield obtained in our work was higher than in the reported procedures. Radionuclidic, radiochemical and chemical purities were investigated to ensure the suitability of 47Sc(III) for nuclear medicine applications.
A two-dimensional lanthanum(III) porous coordination polymer was prepared, characterized and applied as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of uranium from aqueous solution. Lanthanum(III) was the metal center of MOFs, and the deprotonated anions of pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (H2PDA), PDA2− was the organic ligand, this MOF was name as La-PDA, which was synthesized by hydrothermal reaction method. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and thermal gravimetric (TG) analysis were used for characterization, and the results indicated that the La-PDA composites were successfully prepared. Compared with traditional adsorbents of uranium, La-PDA showed excellent adsorption properties. The adsorption capacity was 247.6 mg g−1 at 298 K and pH 4.0. The adsorption equilibrium achieved within 120 min, and the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. The absorption mechanism of La-PDA was also explored, from the XPS spectra, the pyridine-like nitrogen atoms (C=N–C) and carboxyl oxygen atoms (–COO–) contributed to the adsorption of uranium. The results suggested that PDA2− was a potential ligand of uranium adsorption, La-PDA composites were effective adsorbents for the removal of uranium from aqueous solution.
Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) is the most commonly used technique for quantification of 14C in the environmental samples. An optimization study was carried out for the analysis of 14C with the direct carbon dioxide absorption method using LSC. The absorption capacity of CO2 in varying amounts of CO2 absorber Carbo-Sorb E to Permafluor scintillation cocktail volumes is found to be 5.33 ± 0.053 mmol/mL of Carbo-Sorb E. The optimum volume ratio of Carbo-Sorb E to Permafluor scintillation cocktail is found to be 1:1 based on the minimum detection activity (MDA) values. The effect of CO2 loading in the optimized absorption mixture shows that with an increasing CO2 amount (up to saturation) there is an increase in tSIE values which is due to an increase of Compton scattering effect in the CO2 loaded samples. The region of interest (ROI) for 14C measurement is found to be 10–96 keV based on the figure of merit values and the efficiency for detecting 14C is 83.45 % in the optimized ROI window.