This article presents the methodology and results of single shear tests of bolt rods under dynamic impact loading generated by means of a drop hammer. Comparative analysis was also performed for bolt rod load capacity, stress and shear work under static and dynamic (impact) loading. The developed method of single shear testing of bolt rods under impact loading makes it possible to obtain repeatable test results concerning maximum bolt rod shearing force, shear stress and shear work values.
Comparative shear tests of four types of bolt rods under static and impact loading showed that the APB-type bolt rods made of AP770 steel, which was characterised by having the highest strength, exhibited the greatest shear work. AM22-type bolt rods exhibited a very similar work value. Though the AM22-type bolt rods made of A500sh steel demonstrated lower strength than the APB-type bolts, as well as a smaller diameter and cross section, they dissipated the impact energy better thanks to their higher plasticity. This could indicate the direction of optimisation for bolt rods in order to increase their impact strength.
Mathematical relationships were also formulated for selected tests, describing the real single shear courses F d =f(t) of bolts under impact loading. The obtained relationships could be applied in the load assessment process of bolt rods intended for use under roof caving, tremor and rock burst conditions.
This article presents a modified incremental model describing pre-failure deformations of granular soils under classical triaxial conditions. The original shape of equations has been proposed by Sawicki and Świdziński [40, 41]. A new form of equations that are consistent with the proposed definitions of deviatoric loading and unloading is suggested. Triaxial tests necessary for calibrating the proposed model have been performed. The modified model is used to simulate the deformations and stability of sand for every pre-failure loading path and makes it possible to describe the behaviour of granular soil under both drained and undrained conditions.
A comparison of experimental and numerical results is presented. All investigations were performed in a classical tri-axial apparatus.
Current studies in global mean sea level, GMSL, studies assess the closure/misclosure of the GMSL budget components and their uncertainties. Because Earth’s hydrosphere conserves water, a closed global mean sea level budget with a consistent set of estimates and their statistics is necessary. An unclosed budget means that there are problems to be addressed such as biases in the budget components, unreliable error statistics about the estimates, unknown or known but unmodeled budget components. In a misclosed global mean sea level budget, as practiced in recent studies, the trend estimates for the budget components and their errors account only for the anomalies of each budget component in isolation. On the other hand, the trend of each series must consider the trends of the other series in tandem such that the global mean sea level budget is closed for a holistic assessment, which can only be achieved by adjusting global mean sea level budget components simultaneously. In this study, we demonstrate a statistical protocol to ameliorate this deficiency, which potentially have implications for future sea level science studies, including the future Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Reports, and the US Climate Assessment Reports.