The world energy demand has become higher with the growing population, which has translated into an increase in emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. For this reason, CO2 capture and storage has been undertaken to purify the atmosphere. For storing this CO2, it is necessary to have wells to inject it (deeper than 800 m); moreover, these wells need to have stability over time, and one of the stability aspects is the protection of steel against corrosion. Considering this aspect, the most common steels (focussed on American Petroleum Institute [API] steels) that can be used in an injector well were studied. The best performance was obtained using a high alloy content of Cr and Ni. Furthermore, the most important parameter analysed when corrosion is studied is the test time, which was modelled to stabilise the corrosion rates. The experiments were undertaken after a general review of different studies that investigated the corrosion of steel when in contact with CO2 in the vapour phase and under supercritical conditions.
China–Nepal Highway is an important international passage connecting China and Nepal. Owing to its location in a complex mountainous area in the Qinghai– Tibet Plateau, the Shigatse section of the China–Nepal Highway is often impacted and troubled by mudflow. In order to effectively conduct road construction and maintenance and improve early disaster-warning capability, the relationship between various hazard factors and disaster points was analysed. It is found that four factors such as slope, precipitation, soil type and digital elevation have the strongest correlation with the occurrence of the disasters. From the distribution of disaster points, it is observed that the disaster point is closely related to the slope, its local correlation with precipitation is good and the its local correlation with the soil type and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data is significant. In order to quantitatively evaluate the susceptibility of mudflow disasters in the Shigatse region, this paper uses the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) as the main analysis method supplemented by the fuzzy clustering method. The results show that the slope, when accompanied by heavy rainfall, is the most important factor among four factors. In this paper, the neural network method is used to establish the identification and early warning model of mudflow susceptibility. When the recognition rate reaches 66% or above, it can be used as an early-warning threshold for mudflow disasters. This study has conducted a useful exploration of the research, assessment and early warning of mudflow disasters along the Shigatse section of the China–Nepal Highway.
The present is the key to the past. Based on the dissection of modern beach-bars in the Qinghai Lake, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, including two profiles parallelly to the shoreline, two profiles vertically to the shoreline and one plane-view profile, the sedimentary succession and recognition marks of lacustrine gravel beach-bars have been summarized. Vertically, the lacustrine gravel beach-bars develop with the “ABC” succession. The A interval, the B interval, and the C interval respectively correspond with the gravelly sand facies, the well-sorted gravel facies, and the graded sand facies. The lacustrine gravel beach-bars is composed of several combinations of the “ABC” succession, such as “ABAB”, “ABCABC”, “BCBC”. The main recognition marks of lacustrine gravel beach-bars is the following: the bottom contact is distinct and with the “ABC” succession; and the lacustrine beach-bars develop the swash bedding and sheet-like parallelly to the lakeshore. These viewpoints have significant contributions to the reconstruction of paleoenvironments and paleoshorelines and to the reservoir interpretation within lacustrine beach-bar clastic bodies.
The Zhongwunongshan Structural Belt (ZWSB) locates between the Olongbruk Microblock of North Qaidam and the South Qilian Block in China, and it has important implication for understanding the tectonic significance of North Qaidam. Nowadays, there are few discussion on the Caledonian tectonothermal events of the Zhongwunongshan Structural Belt, and there exist different opinions on provenance and tectonic environment of the Zhongwunongshan Group in the ZWSB and its adjacent North Qaidam. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the detrital zircon geochronological research was carried out on the Zhongwunongshan Group. The detrital zircon U-Pb dating results showed two major populations. The first was Neoproterozoic (966-725 Ma) with a ∈Hf(t) = −15.9 to 9.5, and the other was late Early Paleozoic (460-434Ma) with a ∈Hf(t) = −9.6 to −3.1. In combination with previous research, the dominated provenances were found to be the Neoproterozoic granitic gneiss of the Yuqia-Shaliuhe HP-UHP metamorphic belt and the late Early Paleozoic granite of the Tanjianshan ophiolite-volcanic arc belt in North Qaidam. The Zhongwunongshan Group was deposited in the back-arc sedimentary basin related to the Caledonian collisional orogeny during Middle Silurian-Early Devonian (434-407.9 Ma).
Heavy mineral component of 13 samples from the Lokoja and Patti Formations, Bida Basin have been studied for their textural characteristics, compositional abundance, maturity and provenance determinations. The suite of heavy minerals encountered is classified as opaque and non-opaque constituents. The non-opaque components include zircon, tourmaline, rutile, garnet, staurolite, epidote, kyanite, titanite, lawsonite, cassiterite, sillimanite, hornblende, hypersthene and andalu-site. The assemblage is generally dominated by zircon and tourmaline in the two formations. The constituent heavy minerals identified are dominated by ultra-stable and stable classes, whereas the ZTR indices indicate mineralogical immaturity coupled with textural immaturity of the constituent grains. This suggests the possible dominance of chemical weathering of the source rock. The suites of minerals recovered have been linked to both metamorphic and non-metamorphic crystalline rock origins.
Soil erosion is one of the largest global problems of environmental protection and sustainable development, causing serious land degradation and environmental deterioration. The need for fast and accurate soil rate assessment of erosion and deposition favors the application of alternative methods based on the radionuclide measurement technique contrary to long-term conventional methods. In this paper, we used gamma spectrometry measurements of 137Cs and unsupported 210Pbex in order to quantify the erosion on the Titel Loess Plateau near the Tisa (Tisza) River in the Vojvodina province of Serbia. Along the slope of the study area and in the immediate vicinity eight representative soil depth profiles were taken and the radioactivity content in 1 cm thick soil layers was analyzed. Soil erosion rates were estimated according to the profile distribution model and the diffusion and migration model for undisturbed soil. The net soil erosion rates, estimated by 137Cs method range from −2.3 t ha−1 yr−1 to −2.7 t ha−1 yr−1, related to the used conversion model which is comparable to published results of similar studies of soil erosion in the region. Vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in soil profiles was also discussed and compared with the profile distribution of unsupported 210Pbex measurements. The use of diffusion and migration model to convert the results of 210Pbex activities to soil redistribution rates indicates a slightly higher net erosion of −3.7 t ha−1 yr−1 with 98% of the sediment delivery ratio.
Archival aerial photographs obtained in the 20th century play a special role in the process of upgrading the register of land and buildings. These photographs are the only resource presenting credible information on the coverage and use of land in a high degree of detail. In this article, particular attention is paid to the aspect of the spectral resolution of archival aerial photographs. Preliminary research was conducted into the assessment of the impact of simulations of new spectral bands with high spatial resolution for archival photographs upon the interpretation process of such data. The proposed simulation method of new bands is based on the integration of archival monochromatic aerial images with archival multispectral satellite imagery. Visual and quantitative comparative analysis of monochromatic imagery and of enhanced images obtained by application of the simulation process was performed. The results of this research unanimously confirmed the improved interpretation possibilities of archival aerial photographs, associated not only with the assignment of colours but also with the reconstruction of spectral information for the arable and afforested land photographed.