This study presents the estimated remaining quantity of overburden material (topsoil, completely to highly weathered rock) and remaining geological reserve at Sibanyis Quarry, Kuching after the quarry has been operated for years. Desktop study including literature search was carried out prior field investigation. Three boreholes together with latest topographical and detail survey was conducted to obtain the latest data at Sibanyis Quarry, Kuching. Based on this Geological Reconciliation Study, the estimated total remaining geological rock reserve is 40,022,767 metric tons, and the weathered rock and top soil are 2,159,688 BCM and 1,247,697 BCM respectively. The assumptions that are taken into consideration are top soil thickness of 11m, weathered rock thickness of 15m and rock density of 2.64 mt/m3.
The present study shows the results of a 2D local seismic response (LSR) analysis, simulated for a geomechanical model consisting of a layered carbonate rock mass with hypogean karst caves and a structural–lithostratigraphic complex setting, in an area within the Municipality of Turi (Apulia, Italy). In this case study a Distinct Element Code (DEM) code (UDEC) was used for the LSR simulations conducted on a model both in the absence and in the presence of two overlapping karst caves. The preliminary stress–strain model analysis show some tensile yielding points clustered on the roof of the upper karst cave, already in static conditions, and the phenomenon becomes even more noticeable in dynamic conditions. This is perfectly in agreement with the real occurrence of a sinkhole that brought to the light the underlying karst cave, in the case study area, in the recent past.
The amplification/deamplification factor (FA) was calculated as the ratio of the top value to the bottom value in the model, both of the max X-acceleration and of the spectral Fourier amplitude in three different ranges of frequencies, in order to estimate the effects of LSR on the X-component of the seismic input. According to the previous studies, the results obtained show a generalised deamplification of the seismic ground motion at the top of the model, both without and with underground karst caves, caused by the presence of the upper karst cave and by the seismic energy absorption because of layers’ discontinuity.
In a piled-raft foundation, the interaction between structural elements and soil continuum can be simulated very precisely by numerical modeling. In the present study, 3D finite element model has been used to examine the settlement, load-sharing, bending moment, and shear force behavior of piled-raft foundation on different soil profiles for different load configurations and pile-raft configurations (PRCs). The model incorporates the pile-to-soil and raft-to-soil interactions by means of interface elements. The effect of parameters such as pile spacing and raft thickness are also studied. For any soil profile, larger pile spacing is observed to be more efficient in reducing the average settlement and enhancing the load-sharing coefficient. The smaller pile spacing is observed to be efficient in reducing the differential settlement. For any soil profile, the behavior of piled-raft foundation is significantly affected by the PRCs and load configurations. Furthermore, the raft thickness has significant effect on settlement, bending moment, and shears force. Thus, the results of the present study can be used as guidelines for analyzing and designing large piled-raft foundation.
The results of studies of the crushing process in a double toggle jaw crusher are presented. This process was carried out on six sets of crushing plates. The first three of them are used in industrial crushers – plates with a flat working surface and a triangular profile (in this work, under consideration were profiles with teeth angle γ = 90°). The fourth and fifth type refer to plates with a variable pitch t and teeth height with a triangular shape of the teeth. In the sixth solution, plates with variable pitch and width of the wedged teeth are proposed.
The results of the basic process parameters are shown, that is, average degree of fineness n, technical performance Wt, crushing energy L and crushing force F, sieve analysis of crushing product. The obtained results are the basis for the assessment of the suitability of various types of plates, especially plates with a new profile, which have an altered shape in comparison with the plates used in crushers so far.
The crushing tests were carried out with the same dimension of outlet slot er = 24 mm, close to the pitch size for plates with triangular profile. Tests were performed on the “Mucharz” sandstone. Samples from a series of blocks of different size and geometric shape were prepared. This work also presents feed mass influence on crushing process efficiency.
The plates with variable pitch and width of teeth are beneficial because of lower crushing force and energy.
Water infiltration through coal stocks exposed to weather elements represents a key issue for many old mining sites and coal-fired power plants from the environmental point of view, considering the negative impact on human health of the deriving groundwater, soil and air pollution. Within this context, the paper investigates the hydraulic behaviour of a self-weight compacted unsaturated coal mass and its impact on the numerical prediction of infiltration induced by rainfall events. In particular, the work focuses on the experimental investigation carried out at different representative scales, from the grain scale to physical modelling. The material, when starting from uncompacted conditions, seems to be characterized by metastable structure, which tends to collapse under imbibition. In addition, direct numerical predictions of the seepage regime through a partially saturated coal mass have been performed. As the compaction of the coal stock induced by dozers has not been taken into account, the numerical simulations represent a conservative approach for the assessment of chemical pollution hazard associated to water infiltration into a real stockpile under operational conditions.
The problem of numerical simulation of the material interface response under monotonic and cyclic loading is of fundamental scientific and engineering importance. In fact, such interfaces occur in most engineering and geotechnical structures. The present work is devoted to the deformational response analysis of contact interfaces under monotonic and cyclic loads. The class of materials includes rock and structural joints, soil structure interfaces, masonry and cementitious joints, localized shear bands and so on.
The aim of the proposed model is to simulate the cyclic shear test under constant normal load. The associated dilatancy effect is associated with the configurational effects of asperity interaction or dilatancy of wear debris layer. The large primary asperities are assumed as responsible for interfacial dilation and small size asperities as governing frictional sliding and hysteresis response. The elliptic loading yield function is assumed to translate and rotate during progressive or reverse loading events. The model formulation is discussed and confronted with experimental data.
This paper focuses on the setup of axial bearing capacity of open ended tubular steel piles that are used for offshore foundation systems such as those of wind turbines. A comparative evaluation of the most commonly used models for setup prediction shows an upper estimate bound and a lower estimate bound, which correspond approximately to a setup rate of 60% increase per log cycle of time and 20% increase per log cycle of time, respectively. This finding is validated with the results of case histories reported in literature, which show that the setup values of most case histories considered lie in the best estimate zone between the upper estimate zone and the lower estimate zone. The analysis results show a minimum setup factor of approximately 1.5 for 100 days following end of driving of open-ended tubular steel pile driven in sand.
This paper presents a laboratory study of the combined effect of the water content and fines content on the mechanical behaviour of Chlef sand in a medium dense state (RD = 65%) and dense state (RD = 80%). Several mechanical parameters were evaluated such as shear strength, cohesion and friction angle at different water content w = 0, 1, 2 and 3% and different fines content Fc = 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%. The test results showed that the shear strength of Chlef sand decrease with the increase fines content Fc = 0 to 40%, our tests result also showed that the water content has a significant influence on the shear strength which decreases with the increase in the water content w = 0 to 3%. The fines content and the water content have a significant influence on the mechanical parameters c and φ. Cohesion increases with the percentage of fines and decreases with the increase of the water content while the friction angle decreases with the increase the fines content and the water content.
Integrated well dataset and seismics delineated the PGS field onshore Niger Delta for reservoir identification. Gamma ray, resistivity, Neutron and density Logs identified four lithologies: sandstone, shaly sandstone, shaly sand and shale. They consist of sand-shale intercalation with the traces of shale sometimes found within the sand Formation. Petrophysical parameters of the reservoirs showed varying degree of lower density, low gamma ray, high porosity and resistivity response with prolific hydrocarbon reservoir G due to its shale volume and the clean sand mapped as a probable hydrocarbon reservoir. 3D seismic data located both seismic scale and sub-seismic scale structural and stratigraphic elements. Risk reduction in dry hole drilling due fault missing in conventional seismic attribute analysis and interpretation, have to be integrated into the Oil companies standard practice.
The Gwal mélange is mapped on a large scale and is divided into the lithological units such as ultramafic, mafic, volcanic, volcanoclastic rocks, pelagic sediments and ophicarbonates. Petrographically, the mapped rocks are classified as harzburgite, dunite, wehrlite, serpentinite, gabbro, basalt, and andesite. These rocks are quite deformed and altered into the secondary minerals. Harzburgite is a layered mantle peridotite consists of olivine and orthopyroxene while dunite lacks the presence of any pyroxene. Serpentinite is the secondary product after peridotite is the product of post magmatic stages. The mesh structure is usually observed when olivine is completely altered to serpentine. The volcanic rocks are structurally sheeted and pillow type while the volcanoclastic rocks are essentially hyaloclastites associated with pelagic sediments. The Ophicarbonate is composed of serpentinite fragments and carbonate minerals, most probably calcite. Minor to trace amounts of opaque minerals are also present in association with major components. The gabbros may be a fragment of the main crustal rocks and have been formed in a magma chamber by fraction crystallization. The origin of ophicarbonate may be due to gas seeps originated by mantle or as the surficial process where ultramafic rocks and carbonates are mixed through processes of gravity, tectonic crushing and sedimentary reworking. The Gwal mélange may the southern extension of Bagh Complex found beneath the Muslim Bagh Ophiolite. The mantle peridotite of the mélange is much like that of the Khanozai peridotite and may represent its detached blocks. Volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks may be the representatives of the uppermost part of ophiolite crust which might have trimmed off from subducting slab and are, now, part of the Gwal accretionary wedge. The mélange may have tectonically emplacement over the Indian platform sediments along with overlying the ophiolite sheet during the Late Cretaceous.