In this study, two ethanolic extracts, from Stokesia aster (Slae26) and Geranium pratense (Gpre36) respectively, were evaluated in order to assess the cytotoxic activity and potential antiproliferative activity upon the nontumorigenic human epithelial cell line derived from the mammary gland (MCF-12A) and the human breast tumor cell line (BT-20). The selection of the plant species was done on the basis of their chemical composition, specifically combinations of luteolin derivatives with caffeic and gallic acid derivatives. Therefore, the S. laevis ethanolic extract proved its capacity to inhibit the viability of both normal and tumor breast cell lines (i.e., up to 90% cell viability inhibition, IC50 = 42 µg/mL). On the contrary, the G. pratense ethanolic extract proved weak stimulatory effects on the viability of the two human breast cell lines studied. The obtained results were discussed in the contexts of computational studies and drug-likeness bioactivity of seven common luteolin derivatives: luteolin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside/cynaroside, luteolin-5-O-glucoside/galuteolin, luteolin-6-C-glucoside/isoorientin, luteolin-8-C-glucoside/orientin, luteolin-3′,4′-di-O-glucoside and luteolin-7,3′-di-O-glucoside. Computational studies have revealed that the hydrophilic behavior of luteolin derivatives (log P values) does not follow other tested parameters (e.g., polar surface area values), possibly explaining different efficacy concerning the biological properties in vitro. These predictions could be a starting point for studies on the biochemical mechanism by which luteolin derivatives induce biological effects.
This research was conducted using beef extracted from Kupang (se’i meat), Indonesia. Se’i meat is a locally found food where the preferred mode of preparation is smoking the beef with the preservation using nitrites. Nitrite can cause health-related problems such as cancer. This research was carried out using a true experimental method with a complete randomized design with the aim of analyzing the effect of meat administration on the expression of wild-type p53 protein in colon cells of Balb/c mice as an indicator of carcinogenesis. The measurement of p53 is to observe the increase in the-over-capacity of p53 expression in the colon cell as a result of decrease in wild-type protein p53. This research provides scientific information about the effect of giving se’i meat on the expression of wild-type p53 in cells of Balb/c mice as an indicator of carcinogenesis. A total of 36 male mice of Balb/c strain weighing 23.8 g were divided into four groups classified as samples (P1, P2 and P3) and control (K), which were taken from modern and home industries in the city of Kupang. The results showed that consumption of nitrite-preserved beef se’i (traditional smoked meat) increased the p53 protein expression in colon cells of Balb/c strain male mice, and the least significant difference test also showed that there were differences in wild-type p53 protein expression among the four groups: P1 (mice that have been given the standard food, drinking water and se’i meat that contains no nitrite) has an average of 142 expressions, which is higher than that of P3 (mice that have been given the standard food, drinking water and se’i meat containing nitrite which come from the home industry) which has an average of 106.55 expressions and is higher than that of K (mice that have been given the standard food and drinking water) which has the total average of expression of about 78.11 expressions. The benefit of this research is to gain the scientific information about the effect of giving smoked meat on the expression of wild-type p53 in colon cells of Balb/c mice as a carcinogenic indicator.
This experiment is based on the 7-year-old dwarf and densely planted pear jujube in northern Shaanxi. The effects of applying organic fertilizer on water use, photosynthetic characteristics, and fruit quality of pear jujube are studied. The test has been carried out for two consecutive years. The results showed that fertilization treatments could promote soil moisture retention and utilization. Compared with the control (CK) in 2011, the average soil water content (SWC) of soybean cake fertilizer (SC) and sheep manure (SM) increased by 3.69 and 3.18 percentage points, respectively. The effect of SC on chlorophyll content was most significant. Fertilization can effectively improve the canopy structure of pear jujube. The transmittance of SC and SM decreased by 20.20% and 17.38%, respectively, in 2012. The gap scores were opposite to the leaf area index (LAI). Continuous application of organic fertilizer can significantly increase the net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance of pear jujube. The instantaneous water use efficiency of chemical fertilizer (CF), SC, SM, and biogas fertilizer (BM) increased by 0.44, 1.33, 0.96, and 0.61 percentage points, respectively. Organic fertilizer effectively increased the fruit setting rate, yield, and quality of fruits. After fertilization for two consecutive years, the quality of pear jujube fruit improved significantly. It indicated that long-term fertilization could effectively promote the growth and development, increase yield, and significantly improve the fruit quality of pear jujube in the loess hilly region of northern Shaanxi. The effect of soybean cake fertilizer was the most significant.
Liver plays vital role in detoxification of exogenous and endogenous chemicals. These chemicals as well as oxidative stress may cause liver disorders. This study was aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of various fractions of Aconogonon alpinum methanolic extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver toxicity in mice. First, hepatoprotective potential of various fractions of A. alpinum was assessed and then antioxidant activity and profiling of polyphenolic compounds were assessed. A total of 78 male albino mice (BALB/c) were randomly divided into 13 groups (n = 6); Group I (normal control), Group II (CCl4 only), Group III (CCl4 + silymarin 100 mg/kg) and Groups IV–XIII (CCl4 + various fractions [200 and 400 mg/kg]). Hepatic biochemistry and liver injury were assessed by analysis of serum levels of hepatic enzymes and histopathological analysis, respectively. Results showed that polar fractions (ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions) exhibited highly significant (P < 0.01) reduction in increased level of liver biochemical parameters in a dose-dependent manner with consistent histopathological findings. Likewise, these fractions revealed strong antioxidant potential and polyphenolic compound contents. In conclusion, the present work has revealed promising antioxidant activity, polyphenolic profiling and potential hepatoprotective efficacy. Thus, the significant results unveil the study as a step forward towards evidence-based phytomedicine.
Barbary fig called prickly pear is a plant belonging to family Cactaceae growing under hard climate conditions. A spiny variety of prickly pear named “Drbana” (Opuntia megacantha) and two non-spiny varieties named “Akria” and “Mlez” (Opuntia ficus-indica) growing in the Rhamna region (Morocco) were studied in terms of physicochemical characteristics. The physicochemical characterization (humidity, water activity, pH, total titratable acidity, Brix, and ash content) and the biochemical characterization (total carotenoid content, betalain content, total polyphenolic content, and ascorbic acid content) of the fruit pulp of prickly pear were performed according to the previously reported methods. The finding of physicochemical characterization of all studied varieties showed that the fruit pulp also contained an interesting bioactive compound classes in humidity, water activity, pH, total titratable acidity, Brix, and ash content. Regarding the biochemical characterization, the obtained finding showed the fruit pulp also contained an interesting bioactive compound classes particularly the total betalains, polyphenols, carotenoids, and ascorbic acids. Based on the obtained results in the current research work, we can affirm that the fruits of all studied varieties meet the requirement for being exploited in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries.
Catechin – a natural polyphenol substance – has excellent antioxidant properties for the treatment of diseases, especially for cholesterol lowering. Catechin can reduce cholesterol content in micelles by forming insoluble precipitation with cholesterol, thereby reducing the absorption of cholesterol in the intestine. In this study, to better understand the molecular mechanism of catechin and cholesterol, we studied the interaction between typical catechins and cholesterol by the density functional theory. Results show that the adsorption energies between the four catechins and cholesterol are obviously stronger than that of cholesterol themselves, indicating that catechin has an advantage in reducing cholesterol micelle formation. Moreover, it is found that the molecular interactions of the complexes are mainly due to charge transfer of the aromatic rings of the catechins as well as the hydrogen bond interactions. Unlike the intuitive understanding of a complex formed by hydrogen bond interaction, which is positively correlated with the number of hydrogen bonds, the most stable complexes (epicatechin–cholesterol or epigallocatechin–cholesterol) have only one but stronger hydrogen bond, due to charge transfer of the aromatic rings of catechins.
Graph theory assumes an imperative part in displaying and planning any synthetic structure or substance organizer. Chemical graph theory facilitates in conception of the chemical graphs for their atomic properties. The graphical structure of a chemical involves atoms termed as vertices and the line segment between two different vertices are called edges. In this manuscript, our concentration is on the chemical graph of carbon graphite and cubic carbon. Additionally, we also define a procedure and calculate the degree based topological indices namely Zagreb type indices, Balaban, Forgotten and Augmented indices.
Sodium silicate with the formula of Na2SiO3 was used for the four-component reaction of ketones, aldehydes and cyanoacetamide. The effect of SnFe2O4 nano-particles on the catalytic potential of Na2SiO3 was investigated. The desired products synthesized by this method are 5-amino-7-aryl-2,4-dioxo-2,3,4,4a,7,7a,8,9,10,11-decahydro-1H-benzo[i]quinazoline-6-carbonitriles, 5-amino-2,4-dioxo-7-aryl-1,2,3,4,4a,7,7a,8,10,11-decahydropyrano[3,4-i] quinazoline-6-carbonitrile, 5-amino-9-methyl-2,4-dioxo-7-aryl-2,3,4,4a,7,7a,8,9,10,11-decahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-i] quinazoline-6-carbonitrile and 5-amino-2,4-dioxo-7-aryl-1,2,3,4,4a,7,7a,8,10,11-decahydrothiopyrano[3,4-i]quinazo-line-6-carbonitrile derivatives. This method has advantages of high yields, simple procedure and easy work-up.