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Managing Environmental Risk and Sustainability

Abstract

Noise pollution has been rising as a critical issue in recent days particularly for the people living in urban areas. This study has been conducted to find out the effects of traffic induced noise on nearby residential building through 3D noise mapping with and without noise Barriers. Monitoring has been carried out at various densely populated preselected locations of Delhi, India. Thereafter, 3D noise mapping has been done using hourly average noise levels for the locations exposed with maximum noise. The developed 3D noise map shows the variation of noise level along X, Y and Z direction for all selected locations before and after installation of noise barriers. Moreover, the result also shows that exact assessment of noise impact is possible through 3D noise mapping, when a multistory building close to the source of noise is taken into consideration. This paper also elaborates the adequate height, distance and NRC value of noise barrier to reduce the effect of road traffic noise on nearby high rise building. Reduction pattern of noise level can easily be visualized and evaluated by using these maps. This type of study could support decision makers during adaptation of suitable remedial measures.

Abstract

Noise pollution is one of the main environmental stressors in urban areas. In particular, strong noise pollution can be experienced at nighttime in downtown areas with intense anthropic activities: here, dwellers may suffer from disturbance to their rest, which induces stress and – in turn – adverse effects on health.

Usually, local authorities implement actions to tackle noise pollution, e.g. limiting the time allowed for outdoor events. However, these measures are often inadequate because the noise annoyance comes directly by the shouting of people spending time outdoors till late night.

In this framework, this study proposes a procedure to optimize the shape of customized lightweight transparent noise screens that can be applied to façades in order to reduce noise disturbance in urban canyons. The case study of the “movida” area in the downtown of Marina di Ragusa (Southern Italy) is discussed to test the applicability of the proposed procedure.

The results of this analysis allow defining the shape and the size of the noise screens that minimize the noise annoyance perceived by residents. The proposed mitigation approach can be applied in cities affected by significant noise pollution.

Abstract

In the quest for the reduction of noise pollution, novel hybrid-electric or fully-electric power-trains promise to provide a substantial contribution. Especially closer to airfields, where acceptability issues tend to limit air operations with conventional fuel-burning engines, such novel power-trains allow to fly terminal maneuvers with a dramatically reduced impact on pollution. Considering the General Aviation (GA) field, where such new types of propulsion are more likely to gain a significant market share thanks to their favorable characteristics for this weight category, the reduction of the noise impact on ground may increase the infrastructural value of smaller airfields, often located in densely populated areas. This in turn would help in making novel power-train technologies economically advantageous at a system level. Despite these evident advantages, a methodology to quantify noise emissions of a novel type of power-train has not been identified yet – a fundamental step towards the assessment of the potential contribution of hybrid-electric or fully-electric aircraft to the global scenario of future aviation. This work introduces and discusses a possible procedure to provide such estimation. While mainly focused on the field of propeller-driven GA aircraft, the procedure presented herein can be easily scaled to cope with the specific features of heavier categories.

Abstract

Constant exposure to traffic noise pollution can have significant impact on human health and well being. Occupants of high-rise buildings along noisy traffic arteries are severely affected. In an attempt to contribute to noise protection design of prospective high-rise buildings, traffic noise measurements and prediction using the CRTN (calculation of road traffic noise) model, were made along the façade of a high-rise building in central Athens. The aim was to test the accuracy of this model in predicting the vertical distribution (mapping) of traffic noise along such building façades, under the local urban characteristics of the Mediterranean capital. The predicted and measured noise levels were found to be highly coherent with each other, and their vertical distribution pattern, by and large, confirmed findings from earlier studies. Nevertheless, the predicted values had a tendency of underestimation, with a mean difference −2.2 dB(A) with reference to measured values. It is considered that this underestimation is associated mainly with a newly proposed feature of urban morphology, namely (local) geo-morphology. By and large, it can be inferred that the CRTN model is a useful tool, suitable for the prediction of traffic noise along high-rise building façades during their planning and design stage. The results represent a further step towards more general application of this model, as well as a contribution to the use of this model considering a wider number of urban features.

Abstract

In this study, some measurements like the current, voltage and hydrogen flow based on the fuel cell are investigated in spectral-domain as well as their time-domain representations and then, their spectral properties are extracted. Besides this, taking the simplified transfer function approach into account, which is defined between the hydrogen flow and current of the cell as an input-output pair, more detailed results are obtained. Therefore, the spectral parts of the fuel cell are put into categories under the impacts coming from the process, measurement circuits and digitizers. The process noise to be defined at very small frequencies (<15 Hz) can be explained as the effects of the various physical and chemical interactions emerging in the fuel cell. Moreover, this study analysed the spectral characteristics of fuel cells for current, voltage and hydrogen flow in detail.

Abstract

This study compares metrics for environmental noise diagnosis in schools at airport vicinity. The goal is to analyze and identify the most suitable criteria for scaling aircraft noise impact over schools, during landing and take-off operations. A Brazilian case study is conducted, based on the noise mapping and sound level verification. The day-night average noise level (DNL) and the time above limit (TA) are investigated using acoustic simulation and noise mapping and in order to identify the critical receivers. Results of DNL and TA for two schools at airport surroundings show that the criteria adopted by the municipal and airport authorities to describe the airport noise are unsatisfactory and do not reflect the intermittent behavior of this type of noise. It was verified that individual receiver analysis, based on noise interruptions thought TA parameter is more suitable for evaluation of noise impact over schools at airport vicinity.

Abstract

Special requirements are placed on finishing materials and foundations for these materials. The technical datasheets for wooden floors contain detailed moisture guidelines regarding counter-floors for these materials. To check the moisture level, the carbide method (CM method) is recommended by manufacturers and many specialists. The authors of the paper performed moisture tests for various counter-floors (anhydrite and cement jointless floors, cement-sand mixtures) using the direct gravimetric (laboratory) method and the carbide method. Test results were collected and analyzed.

Abstract

With respect to the fulfillment of the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy, the threat of poverty and social exclusion has not been sufficiently reduced in the European Union (EU) over the past decade, and large regional disparities persist. Young people are the most affected by the problems of income poverty, material deprivation and labour market exclusion, which are the three dimensions of poverty and social exclusion. In this article, we focus on comparing the EU countries in terms of the three listed dimensions, while revealing similarities and differences in the incidence and severity of these social phenomena among youth. In addition to measuring dimensions by the currently used AROPE (at risk of poverty or social exclusion) rate, we also use a larger spectrum of relevant indicators for a more comprehensive analysis. While the AROPE aggregate indicator uses the same methodology for the population of young people as for the whole population, our approach includes indicators that are specific to young people. We assume that all dimensions affect each other, so we apply multidimensional statistical methods such as principal components and cluster analysis to analyse them. These methods have revealed that some dimensions affect poverty and social exclusion to a greater extent and others to a lesser extent than might appear to be the case, based on AROPE’s partial rates. Moreover, we present quantified integral indicators that together with the results of the multivariate methods, provide a rather complex picture concerning the geographical distribution of poverty and social exclusion, as well as their dimensions in the EU, for the population of persons aged 18–24 years in 2008 and 2017.