Renewable energy sources are widely installed across countries. In recent years, the capacity of the installed renewable network supports large percentage of the required electrical loads. The relying on renewable energy sources to support the required electrical loads could have a catastrophic impact on the network stability under sudden change in weather conditions. Also, the recent deployment of fast charging stations for electric vehicles adds additional load burden on the electrical work. The fast charging stations require large amount of power for short period. This major increase in power load with the presence of renewable energy generation, increases the risk of power failure/outage due to overload scenarios. To mitigate the issue, the paper introduces the machine learning roles to ensure network stability and reliability always maintained. The paper contains valuable information on the data collection devises within the power network, how these data can be used to ensure system stability. The paper introduces the architect for the machine learning algorithm to monitor and manage the installed renewable energy sources and fast charging stations for optimum power grid network stability. Case study is included.
The effects of back pressure and cavity L/D ratio on the shock wave structure in the cold flow field of a typical cavity-based scramjet combustor with combined inlet and isolator is investigated numerically in the selected scramjet models. The scramjet with a throat ratio of TR 0.0 and cavity L/D 6.04 was analyzed. To perform such analysis, steady, 2-D RANS was used with SST k-ω. From the analysis, the value of static pressure along the cowl surface, contours of Mach number and pressure were obtained. The scramjet was modeled with different TR 0.1, 0.2, 0.25 and 0.3 with the same cavity L/D 6.04 and different cavity L/D 4.04, 9.04 and 12.04 with the same TR 0.25. All the models were analyzed with the same inlet conditions and the results were obtained. From the analysis, it was observed that the increase in back pressure moves the shock train towards the inlet of the isolator which leads to ‘engine unstart’ after the throat ratio of TR 0.1. Also, it is observed that there is an optimal L/D ratio of the cavity L/D 9.04 which restricts the propagation of high-pressure waves obtained in the combustor.
In the highly-loaded turbine blade passage, cross flow is driven by the lateral gradient. It strongly influences the cooling performances in the endwall region. In this research, the effect of cross flow on the shaped film cooling hole is studied by Large Eddy Simulation (LES); modal analysis is conducted with an incremental POD (iPOD) approach, which makes the analysis of the large data sets from LES feasible. It is shown that the symmetry of the counter rotating vortex pair (CRVP) is destroyed. The large-scale vortex induced by end-wall cross flow plays an important role in both shape and convection of hairpin vortices and horseshoe vortices, which influences the coolant distribution. This study suggests that the effects of cross flow should be considered for the design of end-wall film cooling. It also indicates the high efficiency of the iPOD approach, which can be used to analyze large amounts of high-dimensional data.
A very common kind of fault that appear in an electrical power system is the short-circuit fault, which were traditionally handled by the use of protective devices like fuses or circuit breakers which would disconnect the power supply to protect the components of the network. An alternative to these are fault current limiters (FCL), which are protective devices that limit or suppress the high-magnitude currents created during a short-circuit fault, thereby preventing damage to sensitive equipment and also aid in providing uninterrupted power supply to the consumers. A saturated iron-core superconducting fault current limiter (SISFCL) employs the ferromagnetic property of its core material to automatically suppress high-magnitude currents. In this paper, the performance of an open-core type three-phase SISFCL design is evaluated against three different kinds of short-circuit faults. The analysis is performed using finite element modelling (FEM) in the ANSYS Maxwell software environment.
Nowadays, the sustainable energy management of industrial environments is of great importance because of their heavy loads and behaviors. In this paper, the Virtual Power Plant (VPP) idea is commented as a collected generation to be an appropriate approach for these networks handling. Here, Technical Industrial VPP (TIVPP) is characterized as a dispatching unit contains demands and generations situated in an industrial network. A complete structure is proposed here for possible conditions for different VPPs cooperation in the power market. This structure carries out a day-ahead and intra-day generation planning by choosing the best Demand Response (DR) programs considering wind power and market prices as the uncertain parameters. A risk management study is likewise taken into account in the proposed stages for contingency conditions. So, some component changes, like, regular demand changes and single-line outage are prepared in the framework to authorize the suggested concept in the contingency situation. To determine the adequacy and productivity of the proposed strategy, the IEEE-RTS modified framework is examined to test the technique and to evaluate some reassuring perspectives too. By the proposed methodology, the delectability of DR projects is uncovered in industrial networks and the improvement level of load shedding and the lower cost will be achieved.
Precooled engine is a highly expected solution to achieve supersonic transport. As the crucial component, heat exchangers protect other components from ultrahigh temperature. In traditional design methods, the nominal result is multiplied by a safety factor, whose selection entirely depends on experience, ensuring sufficient working margin to cope with fluctuation of parameters. For aero-engine, heat exchangers must work reliably with minimum weight. An advanced method of thermal optimization design with parameters’ fluctuation is proposed and proved to be effective by experimental verification. The heat transfer area can be quantitatively linked with the design confidence level, considering the coupling effect of various parameters’ fluctuation. The probability density distribution of heat transfer area has the characteristic of positive skewness distribution. With the increase of design confidence, the required heat transfer area is growing faster and faster. After optimization, the design of heat exchanger meets the requirements and the weight is effectively controlled.
Numerical simulation for calculation of losses of a new cascaded multilevel inverter (MLI) topology depending upon a bi-directional-blocking-bidirectional–conducting-switch is summarized in this paper. The numerical circuit simulation is performed in PSIM software by utilizing thermal models of power electronic switches. Calculation of conduction and switching losses of a 73 W inverter by relying on data sheet values has also been made. A comparison of efficiency of 73 W inverter using numerical simulation as well as analytical calculation has also been made. The new proposed inverter is a compound of both unidirectional as well as bidirectional power electronic switches challenging the attempt to reduce device count of the cascaded MLI.
Hydrotreatment of bio-oil oxygen compounds allows the final product to be effectively used as a liquid transportation fuel from biomass. Deoxygenation is considered to be one of the most promising ways for bio-oil upgrading. In the current work, we describe a novel approach for the deoxygenation of bio-oil model compounds (anisole, guaiacol) using supercritical fluids as both the solvent and hydrogen-donors. We estimated the possibility of the use of complex solvent consisting of non-polar n-hexane with low critical points (Tc = 234.5 ºC, Pc = 3.02 MPa) and propanol-2 used as H-donor. The experiments were performed without catalysts and in the presence of noble and transition metals hydrothermally deposited on the polymeric matrix of hypercrosslinked polystyrene (HPS). The experiments showed that the presence of 20 vol. % of propanol-2 in n-hexane results in the highest (up to 99%) conversion of model compounds. When the process was carried out without a catalyst, phenols were found to be a major product yielding up to 95 %. The use of Pd- and Co-containing catalyst yielded 90 % of aromatic compounds (benzene and toluene) while in the presence of Ru and Ni cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane (up to 98 %) were the main products.