Industry 4.0 (I4.0) brings with it a series of changes in the companies; among them we find those that affect the business models to get the concept of smart factory. This change in business models implies a complete communication network between different companies, factories, suppliers, resources and others optimized in real time, so that maximum efficiency is achieved for all parties involved. The objective is in identifying a methodology that allows to define the supply chain (SC) that improves the performance and sustainability of the shipbuilding industry. Therefore, this chapter aims at connecting each of the key I4.0 technologies with the most significant SC paradigms: lean, agile, resilience and green to define what the shipbuilding SC should be. This study shows how each of the enabling technologies affects the SC, what paradigms to achieve and what steps to follow through the simulation of discrete events to end up implementing the shipbuilding supply chain in a 4.0 environment
In the past decades, new technologies that relate to the Internet have been able to reshape the economy completely. Nowadays, blockchain technology is recognized as one of the new technologies with potential for completely transforming sectors such as banking. Nevertheless, the philosophy and basic principles in which the technology is developed may be applicable in other sectors such as manufacturing. Despite the technology is still immature, the technology can offer solutions to improving management and traceability in supply chains, fostering collaborative and open innovation, enhancing the use of certification, optimizing human resources management, developing improved R&D funding strategies and creating trust by means of online accounting. In this chapter, a multipurpose blockchain network is proposed to be used by all manufacturing actors involved in activities such as the aforementioned.
Smart factories, being an essence of the Industry 4.0 concept, are expected to be vertically integrated (within an enterprise) and horizontally integrated (along the industrial value chain). This chapter aims at addressing elements of the vertical integration, considering primarily integration of computer-aided inspection (CAI) with other computer-aided technologies (CAx), such as computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM). In a digitized world, virtual engineering presents a powerful means for designing and optimizing the factory’s entities (parts, processes, etc.) in a software environment based on their digital twins, prior to physical mock-ups. Therefore, this chapter is focused on the virtual optimization of CAI-CAx loop for designing, inspecting and machining of parts with freeform surfaces, which are challenging tasks due to specifics and geometric complexity of freeform surfaces. Three case studies were used to demonstrate the CAICAx optimization in a virtual environment. The first demonstrator presents designed experimentations performed virtually in a software environment aiming to find the optimal setting of machining (CAM) parameters and the optimal setting of inspection (CAI) parameters in processing and measuring mold turbine blades. The second demonstrator concerns with the virtual optimization of CAI-CAM loop for jet engine stator segments. The third demonstrator shows reverse engineering (RE) of the Kaplan’s turbine blades, where a detailed redesign was performed based on the incomplete technical drawing and existing blades, referring to a virtual optimization of CAI-CAD loop based on the digital twin generated by RE. These studies demonstrate clear benefits of integrating the inspection data obtained by inspecting the parts with sculptured surfaces with other CAx to (re)design manufacturing processes (CAM) and products (CAD) in a virtual environment.
This chapter presents the use of optimization techniques, through cloud computing, for solving problems in manufacturing digital industries. The first section summarizes the key concepts on single andmultiobjective optimization, reviewing the main numerical techniques used for optimizing. Second section depicts the main gradientfree optimization heuristics, emphasizing evolutionary algorithms and swarm intelligence. Third section surveys some important concepts in modern manufacturing digital industries, including cloud computing, cloud manufacturing and Industry 4.0. Finally, the last section includes a case study on cloud-based optimization of a turning process.
Industry 4.0 or the fourth industrial revolution is driven by innovative technologies that have profound effects on production systems. Recent research results and industrial experiments show paradigm shifts in problem solving, which affect many areas, including tribology. Quantitative information obtained through the digital approach of the tribological study in the interface regions of the contact pairs exhibit a strong potential for the optimization of the productive processes as a whole. In this sense, the concepts of digital tribology, presented here, are perfectly aligned with the new technologies in this era of digitalization and emergence of intelligent, efficient and autonomous solution required by Industry 4.0.
Recent industrial developments have grown from mass production to customized production due to industrial revolution and digital transformation . Similarly, the customer expectations and initiation of new connected devices motivate the determined digital manufacturing. Industry 4.0 utilizes the Internet of things (IoT) concept, which has made the manufacturing process efficient. IoT has the capability to collect the actual response of flaws and damaged products for achieving reduced cost and wastage. By using IoT, the equipment is kept permanently online, enabling utilization of intelligence for decision-making . Generally, Industry 4.0 utilizes the technologies such as IoT, robotization and 3D printing. The lean and agile manufacturing also needs further digitalization for streamlining with IoT concepts. This concept will increase productivity, avoid wastage and with best speed and flexibility for achieving automation in working. E-commerce concepts are also integrated with Industry 4.0 for automating and optimizing the sales process as same as it may be incorporated in customer service and ordering . Digitization started from R&D, commercial, shop floor, shipping, transportation and marketing to services. Smart factory starts from machine sensors and data, connectivity between the machines, factory connected to back office and factory to factory connection.