In this paper, research on the possibilities of sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) separation from other substances in the filter ash sample is presented. The research material contains six components that differ in chemical composition and density. The possibilities of Na2SO4 separation using dry and wet methods were studied. The dry method was based on separation with a centrifugal air classifier at four cut size limits. The wet method was based on the dissolution of water-soluble components, filtration of insoluble components, and drying the products. The sulphur content of the individual products was determined using both methods. The aim of the research was to determine which method is more suitable for separation of the material in a way that most of the material would contain as little sulphur as possible and the rest of the material would contain concentrated sulphur. The wet method proved to be more successful. The product with mass fraction 33.1% of the total mass, obtained from the aqueous solution, contained 8.39% sulphur after filtration and drying. The water-insoluble component, with mass fraction 66.9% of the total mass, contained 0.56% sulphur. The dry method with the centrifugal air classifier proved to be less successful in comparison with the wet method. The particles containing Na2SO4 are very similar in size and density to the other components of the material, so the separation to the desired extent was not achieved.
During carbon steel manufacturing, large amounts of electric arc furnace (EAF) slag are generated. EAF slag, if properly treated and processed into aggregate, is an alternative source of high-quality material, which can substitute the use of natural aggregates in most demanding applications in the construction sector, mostly for wearing asphalt courses. In this screening process of high-quality aggregates, a side material with grain size 0/32 mm is also produced, which can be used as an aggregate for unbound layers in road construction. In this study, the environmental impacts of slag aggregate (fraction 0/32 mm) were evaluated in mixed natural/slag aggregates. Different mixtures of natural/slag aggregates were prepared from aged (28 days) and fresh slag, and their environmental impacts were evaluated using leaching tests. It was shown that among the elements, chromium (Cr) was leached from some mixed aggregates in quantities that exceeded the criterion for inert waste. The data from the present investigation revealed that mixed aggregates, prepared from aged slag (fraction 0/32 mm) and natural stone in the ratio 10/90, are environmentally acceptable and can be safely used in unbound materials for road construction.
The ultra-alkaline rocks have exotic features that frustrated many attempts to group them in a single classification diagram. A consistent classification would be very useful to define a possible consanguinity, an argument that feed a living debate. This paper investigates the petrologic characteristics of the Cenozoic Italian ultra-alkaline rock-suite using -Rank Entropy Anentropy (RHA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA)-. The RHA formula is the succession of component’s symbols arranged according to the diminishing of their elemental content in the analysis (whole rock composition). Other two parameters considered are an expression of the anentropy and entropy of the system. The PCA allows the definition of new latent variables based on geochemical compositions through linear combinations of the major oxides. Using both statistical methods was possible to create discrete groups of rock-types, associated by genetic relationship. The groups plotted in the Mg-Ca-Al ternary diagram depicts two main evolutionary arrays. We interpret the chemical variance in term of a general magmatic processes based on immiscibility and crystal fractionation. A comparison with similar association worldwide give a more general prospective to the magmato-tectonic assignment of these rocks, which is highly controversial in Italy.
Karst terrains have varied abiotic and biotic values. However, due to their unfavourable conditions for human settling, they are relatively sparsely populated areas. Thus, karst terrains merit and are suitable for nature protection. In this paper, partly or mostly karstic European national parks (NP) and geoparks (GP) are studied. We compiled a dataset based on official information and internet sources, and analysed NPs and GPs by location, morphology and timeline. Nowadays, there are 106 partly or mostly karstic NPs in Europe, that means 23% of all NPs. Many of the karst terrains became protected before the terms of geotourism and geopark came into being. 49% of all GPs contain karst terrains, which means that karsts are key issues in the study of geoheritage and geotourism. Tourism into karstic NPs and GPs can be considered sensu lato geotourism, since tourists travelling to these locations generally visit caves, gorges, travertine lakes and other karst features. Adventure tourism is also significant in karstic NPs and GPs. The most popular NPs host several millions of visitors a year, that implies economic benefits, but also poses environmental problems, thus certain parks already reached their carrying capacity, while other parks plan to increase their visitor numbers.
The alloys from Al–Mg–Si system provide an excellent combination of mechanical properties, heat treatment at extrusion temperature, good weldability, good corrosion resistance and formability. Owing to the high casting speed of rods or slabs, the solidification is rather non-equilibrium, resulting in defects in the material, such as crystalline segregations, the formation of low-melting eutectics, the unfavourable shape of intermetallic phases and the non-homogeneously distributed alloying elements in the cross-section of the rods or slabs and in the entire microstructure. The inhomogeneity of the chemical composition and the solid solution negatively affects the strength, the formability in the warm and the corrosion resistance, and can lead to the formation of undesired phases due to segregation in the material. In this experimental investigation, the cross-sections of the rods from two different alloys of the 6xxx group were investigated. From the cross-sections of the rods, samples for differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at three different positions (edge, D/4 and middle) were taken to determine the influence of inhomogeneity on the course of DSC curve. Metallographic sample preparation was used for microstructure analysis, whereas the actual chemical composition was analysed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersion spectrometer (EDS).
Hydrogeological assessment of groundwater resources was carried out with a view to evaluate the potential of the aquifers to provide portable water supply and access the distribution of electrical parameters of hydrogeologic units in some areas in Odeda, Ogun State, Nigeria. A geophysical survey using vertical electrical sounding (VES) with the Schlumberger electrode array, with half-current electrode spacing (AB/2) varying from 1 to 132 m was carried out at 30 different stations in the study area. The VES data were interpreted qualitatively and quantitatively. Three-to-five sub-surface layers consisting of topsoil, weathered layer consisting of clay, sandy clay, clayey sand and sand layers, and fractured/fresh basement were delineated. Layer resistivities and thicknesses obtained on the curves within the study area showed one main aquifer type, which is the fractured basement. The longitudinal unit conductance (ranging from 0.049720 to 1.4520000 mhos) of the study area aided the protective capacity to be rated into good, moderate and weak. About 33% of the study area falls within the weak protective capacity, 57% falls within the moderate protective capacity and 10% falls within the good protective capacity.
Heavy mineral component of 13 samples from the Lokoja and Patti Formations, Bida Basin have been studied for their textural characteristics, compositional abundance, maturity and provenance determinations. The suite of heavy minerals encountered is classified as opaque and non-opaque constituents. The non-opaque components include zircon, tourmaline, rutile, garnet, staurolite, epidote, kyanite, titanite, lawsonite, cassiterite, sillimanite, hornblende, hypersthene and andalusite. The assemblage is generally dominated by zircon and tourmaline in the two formations. The constituent heavy minerals identified are dominated by ultra-stable and stable classes, whereas the ZTR indices indicate mineralogical immaturity coupled with textural immaturity of the constituent grains. This suggests the possible dominance of chemical weathering of the source rock. The suites of minerals recovered have been linked to both metamorphic and non-metamorphic crystalline rock origins.
Field, mineralogical and petrochemical studies of the Precambrian Basement Complex rocks around Akungba-Akoko were carried out with the aim of determining their petrology, petrochemical characteristics and petrogenesis. The petrology of Akungba-Akoko area comprises migmatite, granite gneiss and biotite gneiss intruded by biotite granite, charnockite and minor felsic and basic rocks. Seventeen representative samples of the granite gneiss, biotite gneiss, biotite granite and charnockite were collected during field geological mapping of the area for petrographic and geochemical analyses. Modal mineralogy revealed that the granite gneiss, biotite gneiss and granite have assemblages of quartz + feldspar + mica + hornblende + opaques and are granitic in composition. The charnockite is characterized by anhydrous mineral assemblage of quartz + feldspar + biotite + hornblende + pyroxene + opaques. Petrochemical data of the rocks revealed that they are moderately to highly enrich in SiO2, sub-alkaline, peraluminous, magnesian to ferroan and calcic and have K/Rb < 283. The geochemical characteristics and discrimination of the rocks indicated that the granite gneiss and biotite gneiss are orthogneisses formed by metamorphism of igneous protoliths of granitic composition and the biotite granite and charnockite are of igneous/magmatic origin. The biotite granite, charnockite and the igneous protoliths of the biotite gneiss are I-type granitoids formed from crustal igneous-sourced melt(s), while the igneous protoliths of the granite gneiss is a S-type granitoid probably derived from shallow crustal or sedimentary-sourced melt(s). Tectonic discrimination of the rocks indicated that they were formed during a phase of magmatic activity related to collision and subduction.
The world energy demand has become higher with the growing population, which has translated into an increase in emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. For this reason, CO2 capture and storage has been undertaken to purify the atmosphere. For storing this CO2, it is necessary to have wells to inject it (deeper than 800 m); moreover, these wells need to have stability over time, and one of the stability aspects is the protection of steel against corrosion. Considering this aspect, the most common steels (focussed on American Petroleum Institute [API] steels) that can be used in an injector well were studied. The best performance was obtained using a high alloy content of Cr and Ni. Furthermore, the most important parameter analysed when corrosion is studied is the test time, which was modelled to stabilise the corrosion rates. The experiments were undertaken after a general review of different studies that investigated the corrosion of steel when in contact with CO2 in the vapour phase and under supercritical conditions.