The intensification of research on Lithuanian translations of Italian literature and Italian translations of Lithuanian literature over the past twenty years is paralleled by the growth of interest in Italian literature in Lithuania. However, the existing research on diverse linguistic and cultural characteristics of texts translated from Italian into Lithuanian and vice versa has been sporadic, thus leaving much to be done to uncover links between the two languages and identify translation-related issues. The present article looks into one of the issues, namely, the lexical analytical construction of the Italian language and its translation into Lithuanian. Fictional texts by two representative Italian contemporary writers, Alesandro Baricco and Umberto Eco are chosen as a source of data including over three thousand pages of the source language (SL) and the target language (TL) texts. The results are compared with similar studies on translation of French literary texts into Lithuanian. The study on the translation of lexical analytical constructions in Italian literary texts translated into Lithuanian uses the theoretical framework and methodology provided by the Italian School of Semiotic Translation represented by Umberto Eco and Bruno Osimo among others. The study adopts a holistic approach to the analysis of lexical analytical constructions in Lithuanian translations of Italian literature. Comparative quantitative study has revealed three translation strategies: reformulation, translation without changes and remodelling. Reformulation has been identified to be the most frequent translation strategy. Its frequency was five times higher than that of translation without changes. The latter strategy was twice more frequent than the strategy of remodelling, which, accounts for less than ten per cent of all translation cases. Uses of calque or omission as translation strategies were not found. Comparison of quantitative results regarding the distribution of translation strategies adopted in the Lithuanian translations of Italian and French literary texts and a qualitative analysis of examples revealed similar tendencies in translation choices. It is important to note that changes of lexical analytical constructions into noun constructions were one and a half times less frequent in the translations of Italian literature than in the translations of French literature. Italian and French lexical analytical constructions were replaced by noun constructions in cases when in the SL text these constructions designated object and result but not action. Thus, it can be assumed that lexical analytical constructions in French literary texts were relatively more frequent than those in Italian literary texts.
Due to globalization, migration, tourism and other reasons multiculturalism and multilingualism have become the rule rather than the exception. In this context films, on the one hand, serve as a reflection of multilingual and multicultural reality, on the other hand, multilingualism inevitably occurs by translating films for different audiences since (interlingual) translation involves at least two languages. Films, in which characters belong to different cultures and languages, pose a considerable challenge to translators. Such a case is the American animated film “Ratatouille” (2007), which action takes place in France and most of its characters are French. However, by adapting the film for the main target audience – the children – the character identity is revealed not using complete foreign language dialogues but creatively combining various modes: verbal acoustic (dialogues and lyrics), verbal visual (written texts), nonverbal visual (images) and nonverbal acoustic (nondiegetic music). The same modes are applied to render culture-specific items, especially food and drink names. Since verbal mode varies depending on the target audience, American English source language as well as Lithuanian, Russian and French dubbed versions of the film “Ratatouille” will be compared in order to determine semiotic modes, which convey Frenchness. Additionally, by comparing selected dubbed versions of the film, amusing translations, resulting exactly from the encounter of cultures and languages, will be presented as well. For the research methodological approaches of audiovisual translation, multimodality and comparative method will be applied.
This study explores the discourse of Trump as a businessman and as a president regarding the topic of immigration. Data for this research were gathered from four speeches and four interviews delivered by Trump in the eighties-nineties and four speeches and four interviews after being elected president. The analysis focuses on the way Trump represents US (ingroup) versus THEM (outgroup) at the local semantic level through the use of pronouns and implicatures and, at the local form through the use of syntax, that is, the formal relationship between clauses and sentences. In particular, I want to shed light on the following research questions: (1) How does Donald Trump represent the topic of immigration as a businessman? (2) How does Donald Trump represent the topic of immigration as a president? On the basis of the results of this research, it can be concluded that the period in which the discourse was uttered seems to have a strong bearing on the discursive strategies employed by Trump. It should be also pointed out that nowadays, the linguistic analysis of Trump’s discourses area touchstone issue in political and social affairs. This paper contributes to this volume offering insights regarding the analysis of political discourse. More specifically, research on political discourse is considered as a branch within social science.
The eight-year span in the life of our journal is the time ripe for the in-depth analysis of its development, the results that have been achieved and the prospects that could be projected for the future. Such analysis appears to be even more meaningful in view of the journal’s recent acceptance to Scopus database which opens the way to broader promotion of its scholarship in the matters of multilingualism, plurilingualism, linguistic human rights, language needs, cultural identities and other disputes. Thus, the Editorial of the 16th issue sets out to decipher the double code of ‘sustainable multilingualism’ encrypted in the tile of the journal and the concept itself: from maintaining cultural identities to the global lingua franca, threatening minority languages, from the first steps of the concept in a conference paper of 2004 to the multifaceted approaches elaborated through the topics, research constructs and research interests in the articles published over different epochs of the journal. The Editorial is rounded up by recommendations that will enhance and ensure the further growth of Sustainable Multilingualism.
The increasing significance of science and more intensive cooperation with foreign partners have created demands for plurilingual specialists, capable of providing solid research-based solutions, able to read the most advanced professional literature in a foreign language, participate in international conferences with foreign partners, negotiate and cooperate in scientific and subject-oriented activity while freely communicating in several foreign languages. However, in the case of specialized higher education institutions, such as medical or agricultural universities, foreign language learning is often oriented to the learning of occupational terminology; whereas acquisition of plurilingual communicative competence is much more than linguistic competence, it is a multifaceted competence and its acquisition can be enhanced by integrating creativity-developing activities into the program curricula. The aim of the study was to reveal the students’ attitude towards the integration of creativity development when studying foreign languages at a higher education institution. The generalized results of the study suggest that even though students considered linguistic competence (vocabulary and grammar) to be most important in language learning, yet they valued the acquisition of socio-cultural competence as important in communicating cross-culturally. The students’ attitude to the application of the elements of art in foreign language classes was positive, as these elements increased their interest and motivation in learning; integration of drawing and creation activities facilitated communication; the assignments became motivating and useful when communicating on intercultural topics. The students also positively evaluated the teacher’s work, the teacher’s assistance and positive approach to the evaluation of application of the elements of art by the students, which was the key element in the success of such classes. The importance of stress-free environment was singled out as a prerequisite for creativity expression and communication in a foreign language class.
The contribution of emotional quotient and its dimensions to the students’ language achievement have been widely acknowledged; however, the association between the two variables has been varied in different contexts. In this vein, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between emotional quotient (EQ) and language achievement (LA) of Iranian EFL students, and the extent to which EQ components can predict their language achievement. To this end, 138 undergraduate Iranian EFL learners from three different Iranian universities in Shiraz, Iran were selected through the census sampling technique to participate in the study. General English questions (adapted from university entrance exam) and the Persian validated version of the Schutte Self-report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT) were employed to collect data on language achievement and emotional quotient, respectively and SPSS software was used to analyze the data. A total of 103 students, aged 18 to 27, returned the questionnaires. Findings revealed a significant correlation between EFL learners’ EQ and their LA, while EQ explained 6.7% of the variability of students’ LA, and none of the subscales of the EQ had a linear relationship with LA. Given the positive correlation between EQ and LA, educational policy-makers and education providers are recommended to focus on these factors that can leverage students’ and teachers’ emotions in the learning environment.
As statistical surveys show, both Poland and the neighbouring Czech Republic are single-ethnic and highly monolingual countries. The observation of the linguistic landscape of the Polish-Czech borderland suggests, however, that the display of common natural heritage is conducive to weakening monolingualism and the development of multilingual practices instead. The hypothesis is being checked in a comparative analysis of the linguistic landscape of two picturesque locations - Czech Adršpach and Polish Karłów where a lot of natural sights in the form of rocks can be found. The case study proves that different languages and communication modes are used to describe these attractions: lingua materna, lingua receptiva, and global or regional lingua franca. The research material includes 211 signs photographed in the Rock City in Adršpach and 283 signs photographed at local tourist attractions near Karłów, namely, on the Szczeliniec Wielki mountain peak and in the Błędne Skały area. The analysis covers both the language hierarchy as well as the specific multilingual character of information signs which refer mainly to the rock objects. The selected photographs are presented in the paper in the attempt to illustrate the particular linguistic practices in examples. The research is based on the assumption of applied ecolinguistics that the diversity of languages should be maintained through appropriate language policy and other activities supporting the preservation of the linguistic and natural heritage. This perspective might shed a new light on the moment of transition from the monolingual paradigm to more open and sustainable multilingual practices in the linguistic landscape of Polish-Czech borderland.
This literature overview presents findings stemming from eleven contemporary studies dealing with various aspects of phonological sensitivity in bilingual and multilingual individuals within the context of formal education. The selected studies were published in English, during the past decade, but they include several languages in various combinations. The main objective of this review is to inquire about the nature of phonological sensitivity in bilingual and multilingual individuals while they are developing their early literacy or expanding their literacy to new languages. To achieve that, findings from the selected studies were categorized according to the targeted aspects of phonological sensitivity, i.e. phonological units. The most common research designs, instruments and self-reported limitations were listed to provide a better understanding of the circumstances in which research was conducted. Phonological sensitivity of young bilinguals and multilinguals who are developing their literacy skills appears to be complex, but no distinctive advantages or disadvantages were reported in comparison to monolinguals. However, multiple varying characteristics of research participants frequently interfere with the research design, mainly because of group heterogeneity and small sample size unsuitable for generalization. For a better understanding of the topic, further research is needed, especially in the area of multilingualism.
There is no denying that fact that migration is a sensitive economic, political and social issue, which European institutions together with researchers and policy makers have been working on trying to create the cohesion between migrant and host communities. It has been widely recognized that attitudes towards migrants tend to be more positive when migrants have an opportunity to reveal their linguistic and cultural diversity to non-migrants. Researchers claim that local governments and municipalities “must be part of a framework of multi-level governance” for migrants’ integration (OECD, 2017). The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development highly recognizes the positive contribution of migrants, who deserve to live in a “just, equitable, tolerant, open and socially inclusive world” (2030 Agenda, 2015). Existing research has acknowledged that migrants make low use of local services, such as police, hospitals, educational institutions or leisure facilities due to language barriers and uncertainty on rules of engagement (Sime & Fox, 2014), cultural barriers and issues of trust in services (Alpers, 2016) or social exclusion (Arai, 2006). In order to develop insight into the realities of integration and social cohesion between migrant and host communities in Great Britain, in 2019 this study used a survey to explore how trust and meaningful interaction between all sections of the community could be created by providing social and educational activities for migrant and host communities in Boston, the UK. Furthermore, the research aimed to answer the question whether learning about another culture could increase understanding of how one’s own culture shapes the perceptions of oneself, of the world and of our relationship with others. The research sample was a group of 18 adults of non-migrant / British communities and a group of 15 adults of migrant communities / ESOL students who were attending the language and culture sessions with professional bilingual teachers. The first research sample, for which Lithuanian, Polish and Russian language and culture workshops were delivered, was carefully chosen to represent the native residents dealing with new arrival communities in their daily lives. The interactive workshops on the English language and British culture were delivered to the second focus group, ESOL students. All members of the focus groups expressed their primary wish to learn basic skills in the target language and improve their communication within the local area avoiding social tensions, cultural and linguistic misunderstandings. To explore the needs, experiences and attitudes of both migrant and host communities, a quantitative research methodology was applied, and short semi-structured interviews were conducted.
Surtitling as a mode of audiovisual translation is commonly used for intercultural communication both intralingually and interlingually in theatres. The largest Lithuanian theatres often provide surtitles as a means to present translated text of the original language, although in the scientific field surtitling is still a little studied mode. In order to provide qualitative surtitles that convey the essentials of the original language, translators and surtitlers applied a number of compression strategies. The duration and length of the surtitles are limited; therefore, the surtitle specialists must take into account the time and space constraints and provide the shortest text without losing the essence so that the viewer would be able to spend less time reading and mostly focusing on the performance. The article investigates cases of compression of translated text at both the syntactic and lexical levels. Using the descriptive, analytical and comparative methods, Lithuanian surtitles of the opera Traviata for two theatres, namely Kaunas State Musical Theatre and Lithuanian National Opera and Ballet Theatre, are prepared, and a study of the cases of text compression is performed.