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Abstract

Background

Management of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is affected by regional specificities. The present study aimed at determining diagnostic and therapeutic procedures including outcome of patients with NSCLC stage III in the real-world setting in Central European countries to define areas for improvements.

Patients and methods

This multicentre, prospective and non-interventional study collected data of patients with NSCLC stage III in a web-based registry and analysed them centrally.

Results

Between March 2014 and March 2017, patients (n=583) with the following characteristics were entered: 32% females, 7% never-smokers; ECOG performance status (PS) 0, 1, 2 and 3 in 25%, 58%, 12% and 5%, respectively; 21% prior weight loss; 53% squamous carcinoma, 38% adenocarcinoma; 10% EGFR mutations. Staging procedures included chest X-ray (97% of patients), chest CT (96%), PET-CT (27%), brain imaging (20%), bronchoscopy (89%), endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) (13%) and CT-guided biopsy (9%). Stages IIIA/IIIB were diagnosed in 55%/45% of patients, respectively. N2/N3 nodes were diagnosed in 60%/23% and pathologically confirmed in 29% of patients. Most patients (56%) were treated by combined modalities. Surgery plus chemotherapy was administered to 20%, definitive chemoradiotherapy to 34%, chemotherapy only to 26%, radiotherapy only to 12% and best supportive care (BSC) to 5% of patients. Median survival and progression-free survival times were 16.8 (15.3;18.5) and 11.2 (10.2;12.2) months, respectively. Stage IIIA, female gender, no weight loss, pathological mediastinal lymph node verification, surgery and combined modality therapy were associated with longer survival.

Conclusions

The real-world study demonstrated a broad heterogeneity in the management o f stage III NSCLC in Central European countries and suggested to increase the rates of PET-CT imaging, brain imaging and invasive mediastinal staging.

Abstract

Objectives

Fatigue, regardless of the causes, could leave a negative impact on individual performance. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of inhalation and massage aromatherapy with lavender and sweet orange on fatigue among hemodialysis patients.

Methods

This study was a randomized controlled trial. The patients (96 patients) were allocated to three groups (control, an inhalation aromatherapy, and an aromatherapy massage group). A demographic questionnaire as well as the rhoten fatigue scale (RFS) was used to collect the data. The data were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistics using SPSS version 18.

Results

Before the intervention, there was no significant difference among the groups regarding fatigue level (p=0.54). However, eight and 16 weeks after the study, the levels of fatigue in both experimental groups were significantly lower than the control group (p < 0.05).

Conclusions

Interventions with essential oils are effective in reducing fatigue in hemodialysis patients, although the effects of aromatherapy massage on fatigue are stronger than the effects of inhalation aromatherapy.

Abstract

Background

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common types of cancer in the world. Metastatic disease is still incurable in most of these patients, but the survival rate has improved by treatment with novel systemic chemotherapy and targeted therapy in combination with surgery. New knowledge of its complex heterogeneity in terms of genetics, epigenetics, transcriptomics and microenvironment, including prognostic and clinical characteristics, led to its classification into various molecular subtypes of metastatic CRC, called consensus molecular subtypes (CMS). The CMS classification thus enables the medical oncologists to adjust the treatment from case to case. They can determine which type of systemic chemotherapy or targeted therapy is best suited to a specific patient, what dosages are needed and in what order.

Conclusions

CMS in metastatic CRC are the new tool to include the knowledge of molecular factors, tumour stroma and signalling pathways for personalized, patient-orientated systemic treatment in precision medicine.

Abstract

Background

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a common and potentially fatal opportunistic infection in immunocompromised non-HIV individuals. There are problems with clinical and diagnostic protocols for PCP that lack sensitivity and specificity. We designed a retrospective study to compared several methods that were used in diagnostics of PCP.

Patients and methods

One hundred and eight immunocompromised individuals with typical clinical picture for PCP and suspicious radiological findings were included in the study. Serum samples were taken to measure the values of (1→3)-β-D-glucan (Fungitell, Associates of Cape Cod, USA). Lower respiratory tract samples were obtained to perform direct immunofluorescence (DIF, MERIFLUOR® Pneumocystis, Meridian, USA) stain and real-time PCR (qPCR).

Results

Fifty-four (50%) of the 108 patients in our study had (1→3)-β-D-glucan > 500 pg/ml. Patients that had (1→3)-β-D-glucan concentrations < 400 pg/ml in serum, had mean threshold cycles (Ct) 35.43 ± 3.32 versus those that had (1→3)-β-D-glucan concentrations >400 pg/mL and mean Ct of 28.97 ± 5.27 (P < 0.001). If we detected P. jirovecii with DIF and qPCR than PCP was proven. If the concentration of (1→3)-β-D-glucan was higher than 400 pg/ml and Ct of qPCR was below 28.97 ± 5.27 than we have been able be certain that P. jirovecii caused pneumonia (odds ratio [OR] 2.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.62–3.27, P < 0.001).

Conclusions

Measurement of (1→3)-β-D-glucan or qPCR alone could not be used to diagnose PCP. Diagnostic cut-off value for (1→3)-β-D-glucan > 400pg/ml and qPCR below 30 Ct, allow us to conclude that patient has PCP. If the values of (1→3)-β-D-glucan are < 400 pg/ml and qPCR is above 35 Ct than colonization with P. jirovecii is more possible than PCP.

Abstract

Background

The aim of our study was to evaluate the quality of surgery of Slovenian breast cancer screening program (DORA) using the requested EU standards. Furthermore, we investigated whether regular quality control over the 3-year period improved the quality of surgical management.

Patients and methods

Patients who required surgical management within DORA between January 1st, 2016 and December 31st, 2018 were included in the retrospective study. Quality indicators (QIs) were adjusted mainly according to European Society of Breast Cancer Specialists (EUSOMA) and European Breast Cancer Network (EBCN) recommendations. Five QIs for therapeutic and two for diagnostic surgeries were selected. Additionally, variability in achieving the requested QIs among surgeons was analysed.

Results

Between 2016 and 2018, 14 surgeons performed 1421 breast procedures in 1398 women. There were 1197 therapeutical (for proven breast cancer) and 224 diagnostic surgical interventions respectively. Overall, the minimal standard was met in two QIs for therapeutic and none for diagnostic procedures. A statistically significant improvement in three QIs for therapeutic and in one QI for diagnostic procedures was observed however, indicating that regular quality control improves the quality of surgery. A high variability in achieving the requested QIs was observed among surgeons, which remained high throughout the study period.

Conclusions

Adherence to all selected surgical QIs in patients from screening program is difficult to achieve, especially to those specifically defined for screen-detected lesions. Regular quality control may improve results over time. Reducing the number of surgeons dedicated to breast pathology may reduce variability of management inside the institution.

Abstract

Background

The aim of the study was to assess the primary efficacy of robot-assisted microwave ablation and compare it to manually guided microwave ablation for percutaneous ablation of liver malignancies.

Patients and methods

We performed a retrospective single center evaluation of microwave ablations of 368 liver tumors in 192 patients (36 female, 156 male, mean age 63 years). One hundred and nineteen ablations were performed between 08/2011 and 03/2014 with manual guidance, whereas 249 ablations were performed between 04/2014 and 11/2018 using robotic guidance. A 6-week follow-up (ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) was performed on all patients.

Results

The primary technique efficacy outcome of the group treated by robotic guidance was significantly higher than that of the manually guided group (88% vs. 76%; p = 0.013). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that a small tumor size (≤ 3 cm) and robotic guidance were significant favorable prognostic factors for complete ablation.

Conclusions

In addition to a small tumor size, robotic navigation was a major positive prognostic factor for primary technique efficacy.

Abstract

Background

The aim of the study was to investigate the performance of the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) v2018 for combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CCA) identifying the features that allow an accurate characterization.

Patients and methods

Sixty-two patients (median age, 63 years; range, 38–80 years), with pre-surgical biopsy diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that underwent hepatic resection, comprised our retrospective study. All patients were subject to multidetector computed tomography (MDCT); 23 patients underwent to magnetic resonance (MR) study. The radiologist reported the presence of the HCC by using LIRADS v2018 assessing major and ancillary features.

Results

Final histological diagnosis was HCC for 51 patients and cHCC-CCA for 11 patients. The median nodule size was 46.0 mm (range 10–190 mm). For cHCC-CCA the median size was 33.5 mm (range 20–80 mm), for true HCC the median size was 47.5 mm (range 10–190 mm). According to LIRADS categories: 54 (87.1%) nodules as defined as LR-5, 1 (1.6%) as LR-3, and 7 (11.3%) as LR-M. Thirty-nine nodules (63%) showed hyper-enhancement in arterial phase; among them 4 were cHCC-CCA (36.4% of cHCC-CCA) and 35 (68.6%) true HCC. Forty-three nodules (69.3%) showed washout appearance; 6 cHCC-CCAs (54.5% of cHCC-CCA) and 37 true HCC (72.5%) had this feature. Only two cHCC-CCA patients (18.2% of cHCC-CCA) showed capsule appearance. Five cHCC-CCA (71.4% of cHCC-CCA) showed hyperintensity on T2-W sequences while two (28.6%) showed inhomogeneous signal in T2-W. All cHCC-CCA showed restricted diffusion. Seven cHCC-CCA patients showed a progressive contrast enhancement and satellite nodules.

Conclusions

The presence of satellite nodules, hyperintense signal on T2-W, restricted diffusion, the absence of capsule appearance in nodule that shows peripheral and progressive contrast enhancement are suggestive features of cHCC-CCA.