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Abstract

Objectives

To compare a birth weight-derived (Brenner) and multiple ultrasound-derived [Hadlock, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium (INTERGROWTH)] classification systems’ frequency of assigning an antenatal estimated fetal weight (EFW) <10% and subsequent detection rate for abnormal umbilical artery Doppler (UAD).

Methods

We analyzed 569 consecutive non-anomalous singleton gestations identified by ultrasound with either an abdominal circumference (AC) <3% or EFW <10% at a tertiary medical center between 1/2012 and 12/2016. The biometric measurements were exported for all serial ultrasounds and the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and area under the curve (AUC) were calculated for the diagnosis of any abnormal UAD, absent or reversed end-diastolic flow (AREDF), and small for gestational age (SGA) for each classification method.

Results

Brenner classified less patients with EFW <10% (49.7%) vs. the comparison methods (range: 84.2–85.0%; P < 0.001). The sensitivity was highest using Hadlock for detection of any abnormal UAD [96.6%; confidence interval (CI) 92.8–98.8%], AREDF (100%; CI 95.1–100%), and SGA (89.0%; CI 85.4–91.6%). However, there was minimal variation between the Hadlock, NICHD, and INTERGROWTH methods for detection of the studied outcomes. The AUCs for any abnormal UAD, AREDF, and SGA were highest for the Brenner method, but there were a substantial number of false-negative results with lower overall detection rates.

Conclusions

Use of a birth weight-derived method to assign a fetal weight <10% as the threshold to initiate UAD surveillance has a lower detection rate for abnormal UAD when compared to ultrasound-derived methods. Despite substantial methodological differences in the creation of the Hadlock, NICHD, and INTERGROWTH methods, there were no differences in the detection rates of abnormal UAD.

Abstract

The rapid progression of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak presented extraordinary challenges to the US health care system, particularly straining resources in hard hit areas such as the New York metropolitan region. As a result, major changes in the delivery of obstetrical care were urgently needed, while maintaining patient safety on our maternity units. As the largest health system in the region, with 10 hospitals providing obstetrical services, and delivering over 30,000 babies annually, we needed to respond to this crisis in an organized, deliberate fashion. Our hospital footprint for Obstetrics was dramatically reduced to make room for the rapidly increasing numbers of COVID-19 patients, and established guidelines were quickly modified to reduce potential staff and patient exposures. New communication strategies were developed to facilitate maternity care across our hospitals, with significantly limited resources in personnel, equipment, and space. The lessons learned from these unexpected challenges offered an opportunity to reassess the delivery of obstetrical care without compromising quality and safety. These lessons may well prove valuable after the peak of the crisis has passed.

Abstract

Objectives

Hyperglycaemia is a common metabolic disorder in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective is to describe the incidence, duration, episodes and distribution of hyperglycaemia during the first 7 days of life of VLBW infants.

Methods

This is a prospective cohort study of 60 newborns weighing <1,500 g. Blood glucose levels were monitored with a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) during the first 7 days of life. Hyperglycaemia was defined as glucose ≥180 mg/dL (≥10 mmol/L).

Results

Incidence of hyperglycaemia recorded with the CGMS was 36.6% (95%CI: 24.6–50.1). In almost 74.6 ± 5.48% of these cases the duration of the episode exceeded 30 min and in 45.25% (95%CI: 2.26–57.82) it exceeded 2 h. The condition occurred most frequently during the first 72 h of life. One-fifth of cases were not detected with scheduled capillary tests and 84.6% of these had hyperglycaemic episode durations of 30 min or more. Agreement between the two techniques was very good (r=0.90, p<0.001) and the CGMS proved to be reliable, accurate and safe. Hyperglycaemia detected by a CGMS is associated with lower gestational age (OR: 0.66, p=0.002), lower birth weight (OR: 0.99, p=0.003), the use of ionotropic drugs (OR: 11.07, p=0.005) and death (OR: 10.59, p=0.03), and is more frequent in preterm infants with sepsis (OR: 2.73, p=0.1). No other association was observed.

Conclusions

A CGMS could be useful during the first week of life in VLBW infants due to the high incidence and significant duration of hyperglycaemia and the high proportion of cases that remain undetected. The advantage of the CGMS is that it is able to detect hyperglycaemic episodes that the capillary test does not.

Abstract

Intraperitoneal chemotherapy has shown promising results for the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis in gastric cancer. However, the implantation of an intraperitoneal chemotherapy port may be associated with catheter-related complications. The authors describe a case of cutaneous port-site recurrence secondary to tumour seeding from an intraperitoneal chemotherapy access port.

Abstract

Background

An effective treatment strategy for peritoneal metastasis (PM) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC-PM) has yet to be established. Although cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have shown favorable outcomes in certain malignancies, their role in peritoneal metastatic HCC is unclear. Herein, we present a series of patients with HCC-PM treated with CRS/HIPEC and evaluate their outcomes.

Methods

Records of patients with HCC-PM who had undergone CRS/HIPEC at the Hyperthermia Center of Yuan’s General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, between September 2015 and December 2016 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were followed up until September 2019. We assessed the clinical courses and outcomes of these patients to clarify the benefits of CRS/HIPEC.

Results

Six patients were included in our study. HCC-PM occurred synchronously in one patient and occurred metachronously in five patients after therapeutic minimally invasive procedures, including radiofrequency ablation, laparoscopic hepatectomy, robotic hepatectomy or spontaneously. The median peritoneal cancer index was 18.5. All patients experienced complete peritoneal cytoreduction without perioperative mortality. One patient had two CTCAE grade 3 complications. The median follow-up was 16 months. The median overall survival was 15.7 months. Four patients died of lung metastasis or liver failure owing to intrahepatic recurrence. The survival rates observed at 1, 2, and 4 years were 66.7%, 33.3%, and 33.3%, respectively.

Conclusions

CRS followed by HIPEC is feasible in patients with HCC-PM and might provide selected patients a chance for local disease control and longer survival. CRS/HIPEC might be considered as a treatment option in highly selected patients, as part of multimodal therapy approaches.

Abstract

Background

Pressurized IntraPeritoneal Aerosol Chemotherapy (PIPAC) represents a novel approach to intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Hereby results, obtained with PIPAC in patients with advanced peritoneal metastasis (PM) from colorectal cancer (CRC), are presented.

Methods

Data from CRC patients (n = 24) included in the prospective PIPAC-OPC1 and PIPAC-OPC2 trials are reported. Oxaliplatin 92 mg/m2 was administered at 4-6-week intervals. A CE certified nebulizer was used to aerosolize the chemotherapeutics. Outcome criteria were objective tumor response, survival and adverse events.

Results

Retrospective analysis of 74 PIPAC procedures carried out in 24 consecutive patients with PM from CRC included from October 2015 to February 2019. Five patients had still the primary tumor in situ, and 22 patients had received palliative systemic chemotherapy. Nineteen patients completed more than two PIPAC procedures, and objective tumor response according to the histological Peritoneal Regression Grading Score (PRGS) was observed in 67% of the patients, while 21% had stable disease. Four patients (21%) had complete response (mean PRGS = 1 and negative cytology). We recorded a median survival of 37.6 (range 7.3–48.9) months from the time of PM diagnosis, whereas it was 20.5 (range 0.13–34.7) months following the first PIPAC session. Minor postoperative complications were noted, and few were considered causally related to the PIPAC treatment. However, two cases of severe postoperative complications were recorded (urosepsis and iatrogenic bowel perforation).

Conclusions

PIPAC with low-dose oxaliplatin can induce objective tumor regression in selected patients with advanced PM from colorectal cancer.

Abstract

Background

Metabolomic profiling of human malignant effusion remain a field poorly investigated. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy is a rapid relatively low cost technique, and effusion is an optimal biospecimen suitable for metabonomic investigations. With this study we addressed metabolomic profiling of malignant ascitic effusion (mAE) from patients with high grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC), Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and benign AEs (bAEs) from patients with reactive peritonitis.

Methods

Metabolic profiling with 1H-NMR was performed on 72 AEs (31 HGSOC, 16 HCC and 25 bAE) prospectively collected in our cytology service. Histological confirmation was requested for all malignant case. Multivariate analysis comprising PCA and PLS-DA was applied to discover metabolites suitable to differentiate effusions among the investigated groups.

Results

1H-NMR metabonomic analysis showed clearly different spectra for malignant and benign AEs, as well as for HGSOC vs. HCC effusion. When compared with HCC effusions, the HGSOC effusion were enriched, among all, in alanine, lipids, N-acetyl groups and phenylalanine and depleted in glutamine.

Conclusions

Subject to validation in further larger studies, 1H-NMR metabonomics could be an effective and reliable ancillary tool for AE investigations and diagnosis particularly in acellular effusions.