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Abstract

Researchers within the built environment disciplines have increasingly drawn on a plurality of social methods in order to enrich their research. Three decades down the line the place of philosophy in the choice of appropriate research methods is yet to be appreciated by some built environment researchers. Consequently, a lack of adventure in interpretive research, wrong choice of methods and underrepresentation of the qualitative approach are reported, which suggests the existence of a knowledge gap. This study is aimed at illustrating the philosophical premise for employing social research methods to address socio-technical issues in built environment research. In achieving this, reference was made to a fire incident in a student dormitory in Nigeria as a problem upon which contrasting–subjectivist and objectivist–philosophical positions were examined. The consideration of these philosophical positions and the choices that resulted from both spectrums were seen to have their strengths and weaknesses. To offset the weaknesses in each approach while also leveraging on the strengths that each approach offers, the paper illustrated how a compromise–pragmatist–position can be reached to allow for the choice of, and mixing of multi-methods to solve research problems that could not be adequately solved using any single method.

Abstract

The growth of the tourism and hospitality industry played an important role in the gentrification of the post-socialist city of Budapest. Although disinvestment was present, reinvestment was moderate for decades after 1989. Privatisation of individual tenancies and the consequent fragmented ownership structure of heritage buildings made refurbishment and reinvestment less profitable. Because of local contextual factors and global changes in consumption habits, the function of the dilapidated 19th century housing stock transformed in the 2000s, and the residential neighbourhood which was the subject of the research turned into the so called ‘party district’. The process was followed in our ongoing field research. The functional change made possible speculative investment in inner city housing and played a major role in the commodification of the disinvested housing stock.

Abstract

The main aim of the article is to investigate the spatial structure of international research on post-socialist cities. The analysis is based on data derived from the Scopus database (2001–2018) and includes issues such as the publication dynamics, structure of authors (with regard to cities and countries), main publishing ‘channels’, as well as networks in ‘producing’ knowledge on post-socialist cities. The analyses conducted primarily lead to a general conclusion about the high spatial concentration of these studies in the scientific centres of Central and Eastern Europe. On a more detailed dimension, however, analyses show a significant diversity in both the publication channels used by researchers and the co-citation networks. On this basis, a conclusion is made about the occurrence of the problem of introversions in research on post-socialist cities on an international scale, which is a broader concept than the Anglo-American dominance discussed for at least two decades.

Abstract

The number of urban mobility studies and projects in the three large metropoles of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, Tehran, Istanbul, and Cairo, is growing while other large cities do not enjoy a large share. It would be efficient for those other large cities to adapt the experiences, projects, and studies of Tehran, Istanbul, and Cairo to their own contexts. This paper can help facilitate that adaptation. It investigates the transferability and generalisability of the findings of a recent publication by the lead author on mobility choices in Tehran, Istanbul, and Cairo to some other large cities of more than one million inhabitants in the MENA region. The discussion provided here can provide decision-makers in the MENA region with guidance on how to utilise the findings from a recent study on Tehran/Istanbul/Cairo in their own contexts. T-tests were conducted to test the comparability of the three base cities with a sample 57 others with populations of over one million people. The results show that it would be possible to adapt the urban mobility studies of the three base megacities to 3 to 27 cities based on different criteria. Key suggestions identified by this study include providing local accessibility, neighbourhood facilities, and cycling facilities as well as removing social and legal constraints to cycling, advertising cycling, informing people about the harm arising from the overuse of cars, and increasing street connectivity by adding intersections. According to the findings, these evidence-based recommendations can enhance sustainable mobility for the inhabitants of up to 27 large cities.

Abstract

Green areas located on the peripheries of cities have the potential to become green public spaces not only of recreational but also educational character, promoting at the same time the knowledge about environmental protection. The cities included in the research belong to the małopolskie voivodeship (Lesser Poland voivodeship). With the use of geospatial data of land cover, as well as territorial forms of environmental protection, it was pointed that 48.4% of forest, wooded and shrub green areas located within city borders are covered by a form of environmental protection, thus being a valuable resource of significant nature potential. Making such spaces available in a conscious and attractive way is presented on the example of projects implemented in the cities of: Stary Sącz, Nowy Targ and Kraków. The presented projects were used to make recommendations for city authorities to create green public spaces.

Zusammenfassung

Mit Bezug auf die Modeindustrie und unter Berücksichtigung von zwei empirischen Untersuchungsfällen zeigt dieser Beitrag, wie Kreativität über Routinen, Projekte und Kooperationen sowie durch Sprache – retrospektiv mittels Storytellings und Shows; prospektiv mittels Narrativen – hervorgebracht wird. Kreativität – verstanden als Entwurf, Herstellung und Darstellung eines Produkts, das Kreativitätszuschreibungen ermöglicht – ist somit ein kollektiver Prozess (d. h. sie wird durch eine Vielzahl von Akteuren initiiert und umgesetzt), sie ist organisiert (d. h. die Koordination arbeitsteiliger und zeitlich befristeter Projekte erfolgt über bestimmte Organisationen bzw. Abteilungen oder Stellen), und sie ist institutionell verankert (d. h. durch Werte und Grundüberzeugungen so abgesichert, dass sie erwartet wird). Die abschließende Diskussion erörtert Implikationen insbesondere im Hinblick auf Innovationseffekte und thematisiert Fragen der Übertragbarkeit, die über die Creative Industries hinausreichen.

Zusammenfassung

Die Frage nach dem sozialen Gehalt der europäischen Integration ist nach wie vor ungeklärt. Während auf europäischer Ebene die zivilen und politischen Dimensionen von „Citizenship“ gestärkt wurden, sind gerade hinsichtlich der ökonomischen und sozialen Rechte die Entwicklungen uneindeutig, widersprüchlich – und noch wenig erforscht. Der vorliegende Text überträgt Citizenship als zentrale Kategorie der Modernisierungstheorie auf die Erforschung der europäischen Integration. Ein besonderer Schwerpunkt liegt hierbei auf der Analyse des Wandels von „Economic Citizenship“ als spezielle Kategorie staatsbürgerlicher Rechte mit Blick auf die Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Diese Dynamik diskutieren wir am Beispiel von drei Politikfeldern, die unterschiedliche Ebenen von „Economic Citizenship“ abbilden. Mit diesem Aufsatz verfolgen wir zwei Ziele: Erstens wollen wir Marshalls modernisierungstheoretische These der fortschreitenden sozialen Integration unter den Bedingungen der europäischen Integration überprüfen und zweitens das Konzept der „Economic/Industrial Citizenship“, das zuvor mit wenigen Ausnahmen keine große Rolle in der Weiterentwicklung von Marshalls Theorie gespielt hat, systematisch und empirisch in den Vordergrund stellen.

Abstract

Pierre Bourdieu assumes in his theory of lifestyle that a highbrow lifestyle is shaped during childhood socialization and depends on the cultural capital of the family. While the effect of parents’ capital and lifestyle on their children has been frequently analyzed, there is no research that focuses on the three-generational transmission of a highbrow lifestyle from grandparents to their grandchildren. We attempt to fill this research gap with our study. Our primary research question is whether grandparents’ cultural capital and their practice of a highbrow lifestyle increases the probability of their grandchildren also pursuing a highbrow lifestyle. Based on a survey of parents of high school students, we are able to show that not only the parents’ conditions of socialization but also the grandparents’ cultural capital and lifestyle have a substantial effect on the probability that the grandchildren play an instrument / sing in a choir and practice a highbrow lifestyle. Furthermore, our analyses show that the grandparents’ influence on the grandchildren is only partially mediated by the parents’ capital and lifestyle.

Zusammenfassung

Der Artikel analysiert, welche Formen der Verletzbarkeit sich im Rahmen der Folter zeigen und warum diese für die Folter ausgenutzt werden können. An einem konkreten Gegenstand wird damit die „Verletzungsoffenheit“ (Popitz) des Menschen systematisch erkundet. Empirische Grundlage sind zwei moderne Folterkomplexe: die US-amerikanischen Folterungen im Rahmen des „Krieges gegen den Terror“ sowie die Folterpraktiken in chinesischen „Umerziehungslagern“. Anhand dieser Fälle werden sechs Kanäle der Verletzbarkeit identifiziert: Demnach zielen Folterpraktiken auf die Untergrabung der Körperkontrolle, der Territorien des Selbst und des personalen Status; ferner greifen sie die soziale Einbettung, die identitätsstiftenden Werte und die Erwartungshorizonte der Opfer an. Abschließend werden drei gewalt- und sozialtheoretische Implikationen der Analyse umrissen. Im Zentrum stehen dabei die Verschränkungen der Verletzungsoffenheit mit den Bedingungen menschlicher Handlungsfähigkeit, das Verhältnis von Machtvollkommenheit und Widerständigkeit sowie die Humanspezifik der Folter.