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by the mid-1930s had become quite popular both as medicine and as a religious sacrament, used in ceremo- nies where peyote priests would openly decry the evils of whisky. At times their condemnations of whisky inspired violence against local bootleg- gers, a few of whom were killed in confl icts with peyotists. As one might expect, this raised the ire of the Navajo bootleggers who dominated Bluff City and the area around Four Corners. By 1936 the bootleggers and peyotists were openly warring with one another, a confl ict that saw boot- legging wiped out on

interpretation of the law. Th ere is further complication by the winter hibernation of hundreds of Mexican beet-fi eld workers in the city. To them boot-legging is not a serious crime. “We believe,” writes Mrs. Anna G. Williams of the Denver Social Service Bureau, “that while rum was a great disturber of domestic peace, it was but a minor cause of poverty. Prisoners in making application for parole used to state that they were intoxicated at the time they committed their crimes. Among the poorer families statistics show greater savings and a higher standard of living

speakeasy in North Beach, the Italian community bordering Chinatown, for a farewell lun- cheon. Drinking bootleg liquor, Gidlow wrote in her journal, helped Chung reveal more about herself.20 The growing intimacy of their rela- tionship was sealed two days later by an exchange of good-bye presents and a kiss. Gidlow reflected: “I believe she was really sorry to see me go and heaven knows she is one of the few I part from with a pang. She gave me a pint bottle of bourbon, Government sealed, 160 proof and—what I value many times more, a spontaneous kiss on the mouth. I had

Capone strolled out of the courtroom. De- spite the impaneling of six grand juries, no other arrests were ever made and the case focused public attention on the inefficacy of local and state government.4 Chicago in 1926 was in the midst of what has been called “the lawless decade.” The great national experiment, Prohibition, had given rise to the bootlegging business, creating an environment in which organized crime could thrive. Rival gangs ran prostitution, gambling, and extortion rackets along with their illegal liquor sales. These enterprises generated vast sums of

, something he did more than once, Coubertin would close with a bow: “Please remember us all to Mrs. Garland. It will be such a delight to have you both in Rome . . .” These types of communications seemed particularly archaic for Billy, given all that was happening just then in Southern California and the United States. The year 1920 saw the adoption of both the Eighteenth and the Nineteenth Amendments—prohibition and women’s suffrage— and the start of a cultural upheaval: the Roaring Twenties. With prohi- bition came speakeasies, bordellos, bootleggers, smugglers and

bootlegger, the book- maker and other breakers of the law. Los Angeles does not need a boss.” The voters nonetheless had reelected Cryer, and Parrot now was clearly trying to extend his influence to county government by ousting the super- visors, with the cooperation of prosecutor Asa Keyes—whom the board of supervisors had not favored for the district attorney’s position. Billy was appalled. This certainly was not the image of Los Angeles he wanted projected to the world, especially since it involved his allies on the board of supervisors. He normally avoided public

relatives. We are worshiping God and Jesus, the same God that the white people worship.” That said, the great majority of attendees saw nothing, and the meeting was as orderly as any religious meeting he had ever attended. La Flesche’s investment in peyotism was rooted in the fact that his own people had been devastated by bootleggers and whisky, a problem that he believed had abated with the adoption of the peyote religion. “Practically all of those of my people who have adopted the peyote religion do not drink. . . . I have a respect for the peyote religion

. Shortly thereafter, bootleggers made use of the abandoned Tobin and Point San Pedro tunnels for storage of their contraband liquor. In the late 1930s, when travel by automobiles be- came popular, work began along the old right-of-way on a scenic coastal highway. A route more scenic (provided the fog lifts) and more landslide prone 31 th e r e s id e n tia l c o a s t could not have been chosen. Named variously State Route 1, the Coast Highway, and the Cabrillo High- way, the stretch from Thornton State Beach at the end of John Daly Boulevard to just past Mussel

. Flexibility was a necessary strategy for civil rights leaders in the 1920s. The “Roaring Twenties” proved a difficult decade for Americans who wanted to solve social problems, including racism. The engine of progres- sive reform, which had powered the crusades of the past two decades, lost Fighting Spirit in the 1920s 193 steam after World War I. In mainstream culture, serious issues were out. Shameless consumerism and scandalous spectacle were in. Prohibition brought bootlegging dens and violent crime. The conservative reaction against these trends was swift and loud. Hate

written to Darrow explaining, in a rather confusing way, that he had been approached by Albert Rogell (1901–88), a fi lm director in Los Angeles, who wanted Sinclair and another person to “write a de- bate”—with Sinclair advocating Prohibition and the other person (Darrow) arguing against it. This written debate would then be incorporated into a script for a movie to be produced by Rogell, with the characters using lines from the debate. The storyline for the movie, according to Sinclair, was to involve “a boy who is lured by . . . bootleggers and becomes a murderer