, executiveproducer for the Signal Corps Photographic Center (SCPC),
recounted at the war’s conclusion in 1946, “What had started out to be a simple
training fi lm program had now become a vast, complex medium of information,
education, military planning, advanced training and entertainment.”21 Utilizing
claims from military personnel to bolster fi lm’s status from supplemental to essen-
tial, “as important to the men as rations,” these trade accounts move beyond patri-
otic boosterism to seamlessly meld the interests of the various fi lm industries
In a guest editorial for TV Guide, Kennedy asserted that television could
be a vehicle to advocate for the government’s positive role in the lives of the coun-
try’s citizenry and to educate the populace about policies, the views and actions of
politicians, and national accomplishments. Kennedy understood that television
figure 3: Wolper Productions labor network of key individuals and organizations, 1960–64.
Designed by Bill Nelson.
(core members of
funds to make
socially conscious fi lms on under-recognized groups. She worried that a “17th cen-
tury approach to so much television drama” was becoming a norm.31 Littman left
Numbering Our Days in Los Angeles, USA 187
KCET to work as an executiveproducer for ABC before crossing over into theatri-
cally released realist fi ction.
AMERICA’S ASIAN PACIFIC PEOPLES
By the mid-1970s, Ethno-Communications ceased to exist as a formal program at
UCLA, and one of its chief architects, Elyseo Taylor, had to leave when he was not
awarded tenure. Still, the fi lm
that Macedonian websites were
publishing false stories about the various presidential candidates in order to gen-
erate web traffic and hence Google ad revenue for their creators.33 Trump himself
then used the term in December of that year to refute claims that he would remain
on as executiveproducer of Celebrity Apprentice during his presidency. In the first
year of his presidency, he went on to use the phrase “fake news” in over 150 differ-
ent tweets, although, as Steve Coll points out, the designation unsurprisingly has
very little relationship to the
worldwide was nearly three times greater than all the world’s combined foreign
aid (DeParle 2008).
18. DeParle 2008.
19. World Bank 2011.
20. Iliff 2008.
21. Confederation of Indian Industry, and McKinsey & Company 2012.
22. Google Baby, 2009, dir. Zippi Brand Frank.
23. This was the number of births and surrogates in residence as of 2011.
Ditte Bjerg, ExecutiveProducer and Director, Global Stories, Copenhagen, Den-
mark, personal communication with author.
N o t e s 211
24. Bjerg, personal communication.
25. For more on emotional labor, see Hochschild 1983
wounded,” and one on “the nervously
wounded (or psychoneurotic)”—despite the fact that, as Cohen made
clear, all three subjects had already been abundantly covered by the
Signal Corps alone, a reality that seemed to elude the strategically
amnesiac War Department in its zealous planning for The Returning
As an executiveproducer of documentaries for the Signal Corps,
Cohen understood just how frequently and just how thoroughly (within
certain institutional constraints) his own division had tackled the subject
of the returning soldier—both the “normal