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Naumburg, and its researchers provided invaluable data about grape growing and breeding. In 1934 the Vintners Union of Freyburg was founded (today the state viticultural office). At the end of the Second World War, even the vineyards along the Saale and Unstrut lay in rubble. With the partition of Germany and the founding of the German Democratic Republic (GDR), the market for wine in the West fell away. 1:1,250,000 pp. 224/225 223Sa ale- UnSt rUt sun shines about 1,600 hours per year, and the average annual temperature is about 9.1 degrees C. Yet, with only

Sardegna.) The Vermentino di Sardegna Subzones Alghero: In Sardinia’s central northwest, Vermentino grapes grow in different soils such as mainly gravel and mainly sand (these are the most abundant), but also reddish- colored soils rich in iron, calcareous-marly soils that are whiter in color, and even gray soils that are clay-rich and poor in organic matter but have relatively high potassium and phosphorus levels. The clay soils give weight- ier wines; the calcareous soils give wines that are more perfumed and refined. Cabras: Located in the central-west part of

,4-cineol (Giordano et al. 2009); the latter molecule offers spicy-balsamic and resinous-floral scents, both typical findings in Caluso passito wines. The concentrations of such molecules vary not just because of different grape-growing sites, but also with length of the air-drying process and age (their concentrations decreasing over time). Also, Caluso passito wines show high concentrations of laccase and gluconic acid, typical of noble rot metabolism, and these find- ings are usually absent in other Italian passito wines such as Sciacchetrà and Passito di

he thought, “with tree fruit this good, what if this guy was growing grapes?” That’s how Edmunds was introduced to the talents of Ron Mansfi eld, a tree fruit farmer who had dabbled in grape growing. After meeting Edmunds, he agreed to graft over his modest vineyard to Syrah for Edmunds. Before long Mansfi eld was managing two vineyards for Edmunds, Wylie and Fenaughty; Wylie, located at a hilltop just shy of 2,800 feet near the American River, is grown in thin soils of quartzite and clay. Fenaughty Vineyard, at about the same elevation on the opposite side

significant articles in this field. See also the Food Science and Technology Abstracts, monthly, Vol. 1, 1969, Shinfield (Reading), England, Inter- national Food Information Service. 2 In library of University of California, usually at Davis. Some Davis holdings are in A. J. Winkler Library, Department of Viticulture and Enology. 3 P for popular, SP for semipopular, T for technical; W for weekly, M for monthly, Q for quarterly, A for annual, I for irregular; G for grapes or grape growing, W for wines or wine making, F for fermentation or other fermentation industries

blending, 41; fi ltering, 117; and “fl ying winemaker” techniques, 197–98; Grahm on winegrowing, 162–64; grape growing disadvantages, 109–10; high pH, 119; innovating winemakers, 148; Judgment of Paris (1976), 97, 143, 192; longevity in, 79, 97; minerality in, 104; Muscle Wine, 198–200; pH/TA conditions (2011), 210–11; ripeness in, 38, 76–77, 194–96, 207; rise of, 145; and sanitation procedures, 116; solution model, 22 Callenbach, Ernest, 59 Cantacuzene, Nicolas, 95 carbo-cation, 88 Carey, Richard, 332 Carignane, 61 Carson, Rachel, 7 Cassidy, Chip, 157 catechin

malo- lactic fermentation occurs, malic acid is completely converted to lactic acid. The proportion of the total acidity of a wine which is contributed by malic acid is variable by season and by grape variety, but is particularly high when the total acidity is high, sometimes amounting to as much as half. The total acidity may be too high for the most palatable wine, and there- fore lowering of the acidity by a malo-lactic fermentation is de- sirable. This is frequently true in countries with relatively cool weather during the grape-growing and harvesting

in Wine

c h a p t e r e i g h t Knowledge Is Power The increasing numbers of influential women proprietors and wine- makers who have come forward in recent years are not alone. Simulta- neously, two other groups of women have influenced the wine industry by imparting valuable information. Of key importance, viticulture and enology professors and scientists have added to the operative body of knowledge in the wine world, inspiring innovations in grape growing and winemaking. In addition, writers with specialized knowledge have published books, articles, and reviews

. (We quickly note that, in Winiarski’s lexicon, “guys” encompasses both genders.) For many, terroir also has a spiritual character, an aspect that can only be sensed rather than understood analytically. The physical side of all this—the elements of land and climate, for example—is the easy part; we can describe physical things fairly objectively. Some features of grape growing and winemaking also have a clear and objective nature. The type of root- stock and clone used in a particular vineyard can be identified and described; but the reason they were chosen and the

History of Wine Drinking in the United States. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1996. Garrett, Peter. “Phyllis Hands and Her Influence on the South African Wine Industry.” International Journal of Wine Marketing 5, no. 4 (1993): 27–34. Geraci, Victor W. “Grape Growing to Vintibusiness: A History of the Santa Barbara, California, Regional Wine Industry, 1965–1995.” PhD diss., Univer- sity of California, Santa Barbara, 1997. Goldfarb, Alan. “Di Vine.” Guest West, October 1993, pp. 8–9. Goodman, Joshua. “Don’t Cry for These Argentine Wines.” Business Week, Oc