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blossomed here, California wines have followed progress on a cyclical for- ward march, with great moments and fallow periods. Two devastating bouts with phylloxera, one in the 1880s and one in the 1980s, frame a century of winemaking interrupted almost to extinction by the 1906 earthquake, Pro- hibition, the Depression, and two world wars. But between the Civil War and the end of the nineteenth century, a few California vintners produced wines that would have been comfortable on the grand tour. In the 1970s, sev- eral California vintners claimed elite prizes in

crystals of potassium bitartrate that have precipitated onto the inner surface of his large-format wood tanks in the course of repeated use help with clarification. BEFORE FERMENTATION White winemaking creates juice straightaway, and thus the finished wines are minimally inf luenced by compounds resident in grape skins, especially phenolics. Abundant phenolics can impart strong and sometimes bitter f lavors inconsistent with the sensory profile consumers now associate with quality in white wines. Some phenolic inf luence can be felicitous, however, giving

. This is because it doesn’t smell of anything until the wine is in your mouth. According to the AWRI, it used to be detected quite rarely, but over the past few years they’ve started encountering it more often. This is put down to the move by some towards more natu- ral winemaking techniques, in which winemakers are using less and less SO2 or adding it only very late in the winemaking proc- ess. It is also thought that working with higher pH in red wines is a contributing factor. I have certainly encountered this fault quite a bit in natural-wine fairs. The AWRI

use . . . typically reveal a great deal about how religious groups go about incorporating new members and, in turn, separating these members from ‘outsiders.’”15 Unlike the Egyptian, Greek, and Roman traditions, Jewish law does not preclude women’s participation in the winemaking process or den- 8 / Women Need Not Apply igrate female wine drinking. Rather, the central stipulation governing the production of kosher wine is that “the grapes and wine can be han- dled only by Sabbath observant Jews from grape crushing to consump- tion, unless the wine is Mevushal

, 233; New World crops in, 262–63; Phoenician exploration and colonization, 194–95, 196; rock paintings, 235–37, 236, 258–59; sorghum agriculture, 253–54, 255, 258–59; western conceptions of, 231–32. See also Egypt; other specific regions and sites Note: Page numbers in italics refer to figures, maps, and captions. African beverages, 13–16; additives, 232, 234, 257; available ingredients, 13–16, 232, 259–60, 263–64; beer in Egypt, 182, 186, 241–50; beer in sub- Saharan Africa, 250–59; Egyptian viticulture and winemaking, 166, 179, 180–81, 241, 262; fruit

135 • What is it? When grapes are exposed to smoke during the ripening process, they can end up making wines that taste ashy, bitter, and unpleasant. • What is its fl avor impact? It’s not always tasted on the grapes, but it emerges during the winemaking process. Aff ected wines taste ashy, smoky, and phenolic. • What causes it? Wildfi res near vineyards towards the end of the growing season. • Is it always bad? Yes, if it’s detectable. • How can it be prevented? There’s no way to prevent it, although there are some remedial steps that can take place

fruit. Th e inaugural vintage was made at au bon climat in Los Olivos, where Adam Tolmach and Jim Clendenen were partners, but a winery was built and bonded on the Oak View site in , and it has been the venue for winemaking ever since. After the Au Bon Climat partnership was dissolved in , Tolmach added pinot noir to the Ojai Vineyard portfolio, sourcing fruit from the Bien Nacido Vineyard. Tolmach was trained in fermentation science at the University of California Davis and was the enologist at Zaca Mesa Winery before he and Clendenen founded Au

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When I wrote North American Pinot Noir between  and , wine publications and consumers had just begun to rediscover American editions of pinot noir after a long, cold winter of discontent. Th at book’s seven main chapters covered pinot noir’s European origins, what is known about its genetics, the history of its transplantation to North America, the regions where it is grown, its clones, the winegrowing and winemaking processes, and the delicate matter of how Burgundies and American pinots compare. Seventy-two American producers were then profi led

introduction and winemaking techniques (judicious water deprivation, very low yields, cold soaks, and small oak barrels), you can certainly kick San- giovese’s wine color up a notch or two. Just remember that no amount of terroir will ever turn a 100 percent Sangiovese wine into a Merlot or Montepulciano doppelgänger (please note that I use that word not with poetic license but rather in its literal but oft-forgotten meaning). This is because the genetics of each grape variety determines what each can and cannot give: terroir (which includes the actions of human

mentation. Jullien, either less tactful or less kindly than Jefferson, simply castigates the wine as defective. Contemporary opinions of Pied mont winemaking were nowhere very high, I have to say. My 1810 edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica describes Piedmont wines as brusco — a word Italians usually reserve for bad weather and disagreeable manners — and dismisses them, without further explanation, as “very wholesome for fat people.” Matters changed only in the 1840s, when Victorine Colbert, the French wife of a nobleman in Barolo, hired a compatriot, Louis