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vinifera, it was also true that it could profitably grow native American grapes as well. On the western, maritime side of the state, they were the only choice. A labrusca variety known locally as Island Belle had been the basis of a small grape-growing industry along Puget Sound going back to the late nineteenth century. After Repeal, the first newly bonded winery in Wash- ington, the St. Charles Winery on Stretch Island in Puget Sound, began making wine from Island Belle grapes; it was soon joined by two more wineries and by two grape- juice processors as well, all

nearby benchland property and urged him to get to know other Italian grape-growing families. “I had become enamored of the traditions of the neighborhood, which were condi- tioned to a large extent by the Italian farmers who lived here when we came. And they all had their zinfandel lore, it’s what they fussed over and what they drank at home and sold to Gallo down the road. It was the grape of the Dry Creek Valley, going back as far as anyone knew. I fell in love with the whole thing,” he explains, “with farming, with old timers, with the lore and being Italian

organizes and coordinates the activities required to produce and sell wine to consumers. This includes all activi- ties related to grape growing, wine production, and wine distribution. This entity is legally organized as a proprietorship, partnership, corpora- tion, or limited liability company and can make binding contracts in its 152 | The Wine Firm own name. It is owned by a single individual, group of individuals, or another fi rm. The owner may be motivated by profi t or nonprofi t objec- tives. To organize and coordinate the production and sale of wine, the

, Berkeley. A folder of various manuscript notes on the life and activities of Charles Kohler with several pages about Agoston Haraszthy as well as California viniculture generally. 3 San Francisco Merchant, April 29, 1887, pp. 1-2. 4 Kohler M S , p. 1. 5 Charles Kohler, "Wine Production in California," M S (1878), p. 3. This manuscript is also in the Bancroft Library; it is a detailed account of the activities of this pioneer in grape growing and wine making in California with notes and comments on various viticultural personalities during Kohler's life- time

's produce, called the land "Wineland." As a German, Tyrker claimed to know what he was talking about: "I was born where there is no lack of either grapes or vines," he told Leif. But the latest opinion inclines to the belief that the vines of Leif Ericsson's "Wineland"—most probably the northern coast of Newfoundland2—were in fact not grapes at all but the plants of the wild cranberry.3 Another guess is that what the Vikings named the land for was meadow grass, called archaically vin or vinber, and misinterpreted by later tell- ers of the saga.4 No wild grapes grow in so

,” as one writer has rhapsodized. Whatever it is, grape grow- ers and winemakers all seem to agree that it’s highly desirable, and therefore they are all pretty sure that they have it. To simplify, let’s call terroir the expression, through the grapes grown in a specific loca- tion, of the soil, climate, weather, elevation, latitude, and orientation of that place. It is the unique stamp of that particular site. If you apply that definition in the most generous and generic way, it’s pretty clear that terroir in fact does exist everywhere. We all have terroir. Your

conquistadors were required to carry grapevines wherever their explorations took them. They brought the first plantings of the noble Vitis vinifera grape to California from Spain via Mexico. Deemed essential to their cul- tural mission, grapes grown from these cuttings were used by the Spanish padres to make wine for the administration of the Sacraments. Hernán Cortés, after his invasion of Mexico in the early sixteenth century, found native grapes growing near Mexico City. The Spanish conquistadors tried to make wine from them but had little success. A devout and pious man

by viticulturalist Markus Kel- ler. Finally, climate is scrutinized from the point of view of the grape itself, in selections from Richard Smart and Rudolf Geiger. Note: As the international wine community is acutely aware, changeability is no longer limited to yearly weather, but applies to longer-term climate trends as well. The implications of climate change for grapes, wines and terroir itself are examined in Chap- ter Nine, “The Future of Terroir.” LINES AND LIMITS The vast majority of wine grapes grow in two geographical and climate bands, one in the

. Rabbi Moshe Feinstein, Igros Moshe Yoreh Deah II (Brooklyn: Moriah Offset, 1973), sec. 45, p. 63, col. 2: A woman who is trustworthy and known to be G-d fearing may serve as a Mashgicha (feminine of Mashgiach), a supervi- sor of Kosher food production. This applies only in certain circumstances such as a widow needing to sustain herself and her children. 18. Tillich quoted in Fuller, Religion and Wine, p. viii. 19. John 2:7–10; Matthew 26:27–28. 170 / Notes to Pages 8–9 20. Richard P. Vine et al., Winemaking: From Grape Growing to Marketplace (New York: Chapman and

carried on after Hilgard, and all possibility of doing so had been cut 174 • M ay n a r d A m e r i n e off by Prohibition. Now A. J. Winkler, the professor of viticulture at Davis, was preparing to renew and extend this project, which would obviously be the work of years and would require competent help. In rough outline, this was Winkler’s plan: he would, each season over a course of years, gather samples of every variety of wine grape grown in Cali- fornia from every grape-growing region in the state, from Oregon to Mexico and from the Pacific to the Sierra