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/Interscope Records 069490897–2, 2001. Davy DMX. “One For the Treble.” Tuff City/CBS Associated Records 4Z9 04955, 1984. Def Squad. El Niño. Def Jam 558383, 1998. De La Soul. Buhloone Mind State. Tommy Boy 81063, 1993. Dr. Dre. 2001. Aftermath Records 490486, 1999. . The Chronic. Interscope Records P257128, 1992. L’Ectrique. “Struck By Boogie Lightning.” Reflection Records CBL 128, 1979. Eminem. The Eminem Show. 2002 by Shady/Aftermath 493 290–2, 2002. . Infinite. Bootleg, 1996. . The Marshall Mathers LP. Interscope Records 490629, 2000. . “My Name Is.” Interscope Records 97470


, multilingual, many-layered world of colliding and overlapping cultures: Kingston's tricksters are railway workers and Berkeley beatniks; Erdrich's tricksters go to Jesuit schools, play bingo, and eat Slim Jims; and Morrison's tricksters bootleg liquor, drink Evian, and model for Elle. Though each author draws on a spe- cific tradition, their tricksters revel in the hazardous complexity of life in modern America. Relatively little literary scholarship to date has looked across cultures toward lines of contact and intersection; few works dis- cuss specifically the links

x i x I was born, quite inappropriately, in Nassau, Bahamas. My father was engaged in bootlegging at the time. My parents are both Scottish and my father’s father was head forester on a Scottish estate. While still small I was sent home to boarding school in Scotland, but then my father, having lost all his money orange farming in Florida, returned to Scotland, and I went to live with my parents in Glasgow. When the war began in 1939 I was evacuated to the country, and this was the end of my formal education; I spent most of my time fishing in wee burns

by the mid-1930s had become quite popular both as medicine and as a religious sacrament, used in ceremo- nies where peyote priests would openly decry the evils of whisky. At times their condemnations of whisky inspired violence against local bootleg- gers, a few of whom were killed in confl icts with peyotists. As one might expect, this raised the ire of the Navajo bootleggers who dominated Bluff City and the area around Four Corners. By 1936 the bootleggers and peyotists were openly warring with one another, a confl ict that saw boot- legging wiped out on

. Bootlegging was common among both blacks and whites in those years. Whites frequently crossed the color line to purchase liquor from blacks. Not surprisingly, the Collins brothers were well-known sources of illicit alcohol among the whites of Mineola. Some older whites in Mineola, who do not want to be named even a half-century later, can recall buying a bottle of moonshine from Son and Itsie Collins.54 Sheriffs usually turned a blind eye on bootleggers, especially if they got a cut of the profits. When arrests were made, white juries in Wood County were reluctant

economy. Following the introduction of Prohibition, Shaw moved her own business enterprises into bootlegging by exploiting her brothels’ underground passages to move and store booze.27 But even with her prime location in the central city, her operations were isolated from organized crime. Shaw encountered renewed police raids and faced charges of violating Prohibition laws.28 Her declining status as orga- nized crime’s faded queen became evident when she was the victim of a $32,000 jewelry heist in 1921 and when she was fined $500 for violating Prohibition in

. Its rural markets regularly attracted pickpockets and horsethieves who plied their trade or sold its fruits, not to mention smugglers, swindlers, forgers, and bootleggers. According to one former justice of the peace, "Our winter bazaars and summer markets are places where petty thieves find the greatest freedom. There they pick pock- ets and steal goods for domestic use for which they otherwise would have to spend money."17 Larger markets served as sites where lucrative frauds might be attempted. At the start of 1916, for example, a Voronezh peasant showed

Prohibition agents to obtain court injunctions to close for up to one year places where liquor was illegally sold, stored, or produced. Persons who manufactured, transported, or sold illegal liquor, known as bootleggers, could be fined up to one thousand dollars (at a time when an average nonfarmworker made less than fifteen hundred dollars per year) and jailed for six months for a first offense, with larger fines and longer jail terms for subsequent offenses. Liability was imposed on anyone selling intoxicating liquor for the results of intoxication, including actual and

- quality, lower- priced ice cream, to their lines. In Los Angeles, the standard pint sold for twenty cents; the lesser one was fifteen. In Boston, the standard pint sold for fifteen to thirty cents while the cheaper one was ten to fifteen cents.5 When customers complained that the ice cream was full of air, some states passed laws prohibiting more than 100 percent overrun or requiring a minimum weight per package.6 The Depression also gave rise to ice cream bootleggers. They provided lesser- grade ice cream to retailers who sold it from refrigerator cabinets bearing

interpretation of the law. Th ere is further complication by the winter hibernation of hundreds of Mexican beet-fi eld workers in the city. To them boot-legging is not a serious crime. “We believe,” writes Mrs. Anna G. Williams of the Denver Social Service Bureau, “that while rum was a great disturber of domestic peace, it was but a minor cause of poverty. Prisoners in making application for parole used to state that they were intoxicated at the time they committed their crimes. Among the poorer families statistics show greater savings and a higher standard of living