in Modern Kenya (Cambridge
University Press, 1995), coeditor (with M. Priscilla Stone and Peter D. Little) of
Commodities and Globalization: Anthropological Perspectives (Rowman and Little-
field, 2000), and coeditor (with Marc Edelman) of Anthropology of Development
and Globalization: From Classical Political Economy to Contemporary Neoliberalism
Stefan Helmreich is Associate Professor of Anthropology at MIT. His book
Silicon Second Nature: Culturing Artificial Life in a DigitalWorld (University of
California Press, 1998) examines the practices
; the famous Napalm Girl
photograph of the late Vietnam War period and the several myths attached
to that powerful and provocative image; and the phenomenon of bogus
quotations—some of which could be media myths in the making—and
the impressive velocity and circulation they reach, thanks to the Internet
and social media. These chapters thus extend the examination of media
myths to realms of the image and the digitalworld. And they signal anew
that the work of debunking is never over.
archaeologists think about location and what instru-
ments we use to create digitalworlds. These technologies have
become pervasive across archaeology, but there are a few topics
that they have proved especially helpful for, including retracing
movement and mobility, working out how our ancestors fed them-
selves, and reconstructing the kinds of societies they built. In the
end, I discuss some of the challenges of applying geospatial tech-
nologies more broadly, beyond the few places that have thus far
received most of our attention, to expand and deepen our picture
of Nikki Terry, whose support helped me assemble this book in its final
stages and get it out into the digitalworld.
I feel a deep sense of gratitude toward my undergraduate mentor, advi-
sor, and friend, Michelle Harris. Her generosity was a turning point for me
as a college freshman, and she and Harvey Charles have been a continued
source of love and support throughout my career. I am also grateful to our
collaborators, Sherrill Sellers and Frederick Gooding, with whom I met
frequently to complete our coedited book as I wrote this book. Working
Media, 4(4), 371 – 388.
b i b l i o g r a p h y 217
Tyner, K. (1998). Literacy in a digitalworld: Teaching and learning in the age of infor-
mation. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Wallack, L., Woodruff, K., Dorfman, L. & Diaz, I. (1999). News for a change: An
advocates’ guide to working with the media. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Willis, P. (1990). Common culture: Symbolic work at play in the everyday cultures of
the young. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
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libraries exemptions for archival photocopying also apply
to optical scanning and text-file creation for the same purposes. If the library is
permit ted to make the copy, it should not matter what technology was employed
to generate the reproduct ion. 1 9
Making the file available to reader-viewers raises a d i f fe ren t problem. For a
pr inted text, reading presents no copyright issues because copyright does not
attach to the physical object. In the digitalworld, however, looking at the text
does implicate copyright, because viewing the text on-screen entails
ously during a particular task or takes one piece of information at a time.
The Web works with sensors and motors, memories and representations,
like the brain that controls our senses, muscles, images, emotions, and
thoughts. Finally, on the Web we deal with the continuous and the dis-
crete, the analog and the digitalworlds. Our brain does the same.
TO CLICK OR NOT TO CLICK
In fact each click unfolds a new dimension in the virtual space of the
digitalworld. If we have only one button to push or one lever to press,
the option is called unary. If we have two
cyber-archaeology (e.g., Levy and
Chapter 5: DigitalWorlds
1. A good place to start is to ask if GIS is the best tool for the problem at
hand (see Lock and Pouncett 2017).
2. Michael F. Goodchild has thought a lot about time and GIS over the years
and has come to the conclusion that a “space-time geographic information sys-
tem is unlikely to emerge in the near future” (Goodchild 2013, 1072).
3. The technical term for what I am talking about here is geographic visu-
alization or geovisualization. See Gupta and Devillers (2017) for an excellent
observers of their surroundings. The students begin by
exploring, and then mapping, the library’s physical and electronic resources. Our
intense focus on such fundamentals trains students to see and probe that which they
might otherwise overlook in their everyday interactions. In completing this exercise,
students examine the physical structure of a library and the various needs that must
be met through that structure, familiarize themselves with collections of books and
journals, and grasp the connection between the physical and digitalworlds of the
in the diGitalworld
E-cash and the increasing importance of digital markets pose problems for central
government control over the economy and the behavior of economic actors; they also
render borders around national markets and nation-states increasingly permeable—or,
perhaps, increasingly irrelevant. In a world where true e-cash is an everyday reality, the
basic role of government in a liberal market economy and the relevance of borders and
geography will be drastically redefined.
While at first glance this concern appears to reflect a traditional break