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List of maps • vii Acknowledgments • ix introduction: the Vinos and Vinhas of south America • 1 1. overview • 5 2. Grape Varieties • 13 3. Argentina • 39 4. chile • 109 5. Brazil • 179 6. uruguay • 207 7. Bolivia, colombia, ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, and Venezuela • 231 touring south American Wine country • 253 Dining south American style • 261 super south American selections • 265 Decoding south American Wine Labels • 273 sources • 275 index • 277 contents This page intentionally left blank

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v i i 1. South American wine-producing countries • 4 2. Argentina’s wine regions • 47 3. Argentina: The northern region • 49 4. Argentina: Cuyo • 54 5. Argentina: Patagonia • 61 6. Chile’s wine regions • 115 7. Chile: The Central Valley • 121 8. Brazil’s wine regions • 185 9. Uruguay’s wine regions • 213 10. Wine regions of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, and Venezuela • 232 mAPs This page intentionally left blank

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American Wine Economics This page intentionally left blank American Wine Economics An Exploration of the U.S. Wine Industry James Thornton U N I V E R S I T Y O F C A L I F O R N I A P R E S S Berkeley • Los Angeles • London University of California Press, one of the most distinguished university presses in the United States, enriches lives around the world by advancing scholarship in the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. Its activities are supported by the UC Press Foundation and by philanthropic contributions from individuals and

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The Makers of American Wine This page intentionally left blank The Makers of American Wine A Record of Two Hundred Years Thomas Pinney U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s B e r k e l e y L o s A n g e l e s L o n d o n University of California Press, one of the most distinguished university presses in the United States, enriches lives around the world by advancing scholarship in the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. Its activities are supported by the UC Press Foundation and by philanthropic contributions from

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List of Illustrations ix Acknowledgments xi Introduction xiii 1 • John James Dufour, or the Uses of Failure: A Man with a Mission 1 2 • Nicholas Longworth: The Necessary Entrepreneur 22 3 • George Husmann: A Pure and Lofty Faith 39 4 • Charles Kohler: Putting California Wines on the Map 57 5 • Andrea Sbarboro: The Italians Are Coming 75 6 • Percy T. Morgan and the CWA: Wine as Big Business 90 7 • Paul Garrett: American Wine for Americans 107 8 • Ernest and Julio Gallo: Creating New Markets 127 9 • Frank Schoonmaker: A Master Teacher 149

1 According to an old South American story, when God finished creating the earth, the angels in charge of shaping the land came to him and said: “We’ve got a lot of mountains, valleys, and rivers left over; what should we do with them?” God answered, “Dump them at the end of the earth.” And that, fortuitously for grape growers and winemakers, is how Chile and Argentina were created. My first encounter with South American wine was a revelation. On an October day in the mid-1980s, while I was working at my family’s San Francisco restaurant, Square One, a

259 Further Reading Although it’s easy to turn up home winemaking sites on the Internet—just type “winemak- ers,” “winemaking,” or “home winemaking” into your computer’s search engine—you may well find the information in conventional printed works to be more accessible. The following volumes are some of the many worth consulting. Adventures on the Wine Route: A Wine Buyer’s Tour of France, 25th anniversary ed., by Kermit Lynch. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2013. American Vintage: The Rise of American Wine, by Paul Lukacs. New York: Houghton Mifflin

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xi The splendid collections of Gail Unzelman, whose generosity is acknowl- edged in the dedication to this book, were invaluable to me throughout, but particularly for the information they provided for the chapters on Husmann and Morgan. I have leaned heavily on the books of Charles Sullivan, the unri- valed master of American wine history, and have profited from his review of the manuscript. The librarians, without whose willing help no book of this kind can be written, that I would like to thank include in particular Axel Borg, in charge of the Amerine

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months. When we taste it, there is this awkward silence that seems to go on for several min- utes, as everyone tries to make sense of what they’re tasting, but like many a great wine, this one simply keeps eluding us, slipping through the safety net of what we’ve come to expect from American wine. It’s my job to break the silence, and so partly to give us something to hold onto, I stand up and look at the group of tasters before me, turn back to stare in my glass and say, “Not only is this a great wine, this is a weird wine.” I suspect many of you reading this have

6 WINE IN THE WAR YEARS FIRST EFFECTS The chance that the war that was declared in September 1939 would open up the world to American wines—an exciting thought rather widely shared at one time—was more theoretical than real.1 Those few parts of Europe that were not caught up in the war were not much interested in American wines, even supposing one could safely transport them there; South America had its own supplies; there was war in Asia. None of the necessary work in establishing markets and the means of supplying them had been done.2 And soon enough, the