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the will of the majority in a matter of personal and social conduct. Tolerance should prevail over winners and losers. Majority rule is also ineffective. Drinkers will find a way to drink, no matter how severe the prohibition. The "iron law of prohibition" teaches that the harsher the law, the more likely it is that the drinker will turn to stronger alcoholic beverages. Throughout American history, drinking has been associated with law- lessness. The vices, which are multifaceted, include public drunkenness, smuggling, bootlegging, adulteration, misbranding

, 195 Blue Coronet (Brooklyn), 116 “Blue Haze” (tune), 59 “Blue ’n Boogie” (tune), 60 Blue Note Club (Chicago), 40 Blue Note Club (Philadelphia), 92–94, 100, 121 Blue Note Records, 59, 77, 147, 164; in feuds with Prestige Records, 91; sale of, 139; Silver’s recordings for, 78– 80, 136–37, 185–86; Silver’s satisfac- tion with, 138–39; and United States of Mind project, 135, 191 “Body and Soul” (tune), 30, 53 “Bohemia after Dark” (tune), 72 Bolden, Walter, 24, 32, 33, 34–35, 36, 37, 41–42, 43 Booker, Beryl, 53 Booker, Billy, 9 booking agents, 172 bootleg records, 164

margins. The motels played a combination of stag films and loops, cheaply produced shorts, pirated copies of films then in general release in adult theaters, and, possibly, locally produced material made for the motels—all highly similar to the cheap “homemade videotapes” seen by Joseph Slade in the theaters in Times Square, described in the introduc- tion to this book. A Los Angeles Times reporter described the offerings in 1975: “Some are bootlegged versions of today’s porn classics such as Deep Throat (1972) and Memories within Miss Aggie (1974). Some are old

This bibliography excludes state and federal laws, regulations, and other gov- ernment materials, as well as unpublished works, speeches, newspaper articles, and Internet sources, all of which are fully cited in the backnote references. B O O K S Adams, Leon D. The Wines of America. McGraw-Hill, 4th ed., 1990. Allen, Frederick Lewis. Only Yesterday: An Informal History of the 1920'$. Harper & Row, id ed., 1964. Allsop, Kenneth. The Bootleggers: The Story of Prohibition. Arlington House, 1961. Amerine, Maynard, ed. Wine Production Technology in the United States

., 50, 87, 127 Barrel Fighters (film; 1903), 98 baseball, 11 Battle of Jeffries and Sharkey for Championship of the World, The (bootleg film; 1899), 106 Battle of San Juan Hill (film; 1899), 136 Baynes, George McLeod, 270 Beach, Rex, 220 Bean, Roy, 57 Behan, Hugh, 42 Berger, Louis J., 233 Bertho, Paul, 241 Betts, John Rickards, 10 Beyond the Ring (Sammons), 11 Big Fights, Inc., 2 Bill as a Boxer (film; 1910), 241 Billy Edwards and Warwick (film; 1895), 23 Billy Edwards Boxing (film; 1895), 41 Biograph. See American Mutoscope & Biograph Company Biograph Bulletin, 159

of Prohibition, a sprawling illegal liquor industry existed in Amer- ica, composed of numerous manufacturers and distributors ranging from small family-owned businesses to national criminal syndicates. Domestic pro- ducers by then were accustomed to making alcoholic beverages of varying strengths with whatever ingredients were available. They did not pay taxes, and they reported to no one. Distribution was done by bootleggers, many of whom would continue their businesses after Repeal, relying on their ex- tensive network of contacts. On the retail front

both cases governmental prohibition of a commodity for which there remained a huge consumer demand provided the opportunity for criminal entrepreneurs to meet that demand by illegal means. Fab- ulous profits could be made from "bootleg" alcohol. In the 1920s, for example, the Torrio-Capone organization in Chicago grossed somewhere between US$60 million and US$240 million a year from beer and other alcoholic beverages. As A1 Capone observed, "Pro- hibition is a business."9 This recognition saw the emergence of what Fried has termed "Prohibition capitalism."10

Bobo, William, 83 bombs, En glish, 54, 70, 71 bootleggers, ice cream, 182–83 Borella, Mr.: borrowing by, 59; The Court and Country Confectioner, 43, 57; flavorings of, 58; ice creams of, 57–58; muscadine ice of, 68, 69 Boston Cooking School, 134, 142 Bracken, Peg: I Hate to Cook Book, 203 Bradley, Alice: chocolate ice cream recipe, 184; Electric Refrigerator Menus and Recipes, 183–84 Brancone, Cherubino, 52 brewers, American: manufacturing of ice cream, 161 brewing, ice for, 90 Briggs, Richard: The En glish Art of Cookery, 77 Brillat- Savarin, Jean Anthelme: The


drizzly January night, his friends and rivals set aside their differences at the Good Street Baptist Church to honor Willie Brown's xiv PROLOGUE mother. But Brown was not the only center of attention that night. Holding court at a table in the social hall was Brown's uncle, eighty-seven-year-old Itsie Collins, who in his good days was a bootlegger and gambler, and was still physically imposing. It was Itsie Collins who brought Willie Brown to San Francisco and opened for him a side of life unknown in rural Texas. That night Brown took great delight in

collection, irregu- larities in accounts, and illegal issues of the forbidden libranzas continued as in the past. There were occasional crackdowns, but they produced no long-term benefits. Little had changed in the fiscal operations of the government since 1830.53 The circulation of counterfeit money and the bootlegging of aguardientes were two more problems that bedeviled the nation during Flores' second administration. In May 1840 the govern- ment began a program to stamp out illicit liquor sales, but the highland bootleggers were as evasive and as resourceful as