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(Smelser 1981, 1984, 1988b, 1991b, 1995); I had organized and edited a general handbook of sociology (Smelser 1988a); I had coedited and written 288 s o m e r e c e n t r e f l e c t i o n s theoretical essays for all three of the German-American theory projects; and I had completed essays on a variety of other subjects. None of these were full scholarly realizations in my mind, however, and I increasingly got the feeling that I was involved in too many distracting activities. Worst of all, my work on British working-class education lay fallow, inching for- ward

universities, owed their origin to the Extension Movement, notably Nottingham, Shef- field, and Reading. ""Mansbridge, University Tutorial Classes-, Mansbridge, Adventure in Working-Class Education. ""Flexner, Universities, pp. 128— 147, where he pours scorn not only on the home study courses but on the whole "service" function of the university. ' " S e e , inter alia, MacArthur , "Flexibility and Innovation," pp. 102-104. 4 8 / T H E H I S T O R I C A L P E R S P E C T I V E and the political will to make productive and pleasurable use of it. And as the Americans

progress of working class education. Have the intellectuals consistently led European labor into "left- ist" ways? It is conceivable that on this point Perlman has been the victim of personal experience. In the United States the intellec- tual who has approached labor has been typically a radical who has criticized it, from a leftist point of view, as too conservative, as insufficiently ambitious, as showing only a limited interest in wider issues. Perlman's discussion of the role of the intellectuals in European labor20 gives the impression that he judges the Euro

Social Reform; and Helmut Kreutzer, Die Boheme: Analyse und Dokumentation der intellektuellen Subkultur vom 19. ]ahr- hundert bis zur Gegenwart (Stuttgart, 1971). Traditions with new cultural forms, these individuals were of little real influence. In the Freie Volksbühne, the Social Democrats' attempt at working-class "education" through theatrical performances, the party wanted the au- diences to get at least an indirect socialist message. As for formal ques- tions, in an actual party debate on naturalism and aesthetic theory, at Gotha in 1896, August Bebel

(1916). Church work as Bishop of Hon- duras; negroes and banana trade; chap- lain and Bishop of North & Central Eur- ope during WW1. 672 BUSS,Henry. Eighty Years Experimce (1893). Education at London Mechanics Institute; influence of Birkbeck; his medical training at Royal College Sur- geons; practice; experiments with new therapies;travels; marriage; valuable for working-class education. 673 BUSSEY,Harry Findlater. Sixty Years (1906). Journalist and Parliamentary reporter;Hanchester; Manchester poli- ticians, Disraeli, Gladstone; debates in Parliament

. Smelser, Neil J. 1959 Social Change in the Industrial Revolution: An Application of Theory to the Lan- cashire Cotton Industry, 1770 – 1840. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1962 Theory of Collective Behavior. New york: free Press. 1969 The optimum Scope of Sociology. in A Design for Sociology: Scope, Objectives, and Methods, ed. Robert Bierstedt. Philadelphia: american academy of Political and Social Science, 1 – 21. 1976 Comparative Methods in the Social Sciences. englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. 1991 Social Paralysis and Social Change: British Working-Class

at a time when the main concern in the eyes of reformists was sectarian division rather than class tensions. it is only at the beginning of the twentieth century that the concept of the masses was first formulated, let alone that of the working classes. in other words, the rise of mass politics propelled the theater to the front of mass education, and specifi- cally working-class education. by 1910 the theater had become so inextricably as- sociated with workers’ education that al-Hilāl could, in all seriousness, make the analogy between the formation of arab

need not concern us here. It is described by Simon, Studies, pp. 108-112 and analyzed at length by David New- some, Godliness and Good Learning (London: Murray, 1961). 62. Quoted by Simon, Studies, p. 102. 63. G. Kitson Clark, The Making of Victorian England (London: Methuen, 1962), pp. 273-274. 64. On working class education, see Simon, Studies, pp. 121-162, and in particular, Mary Sturt, The Education of the People (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1967). 65. Simon, Studies, pp. 97-98. 66. Perkin, Origins, p. 301. 67. Simon, Studies, p. 246. For this

kind of educational appa- 232 Ireland and Scotland ratus that each inherited at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Working-class education in England consisted of a limited number of religious charity schools and Sunday schools. Both were private, and state intervention, beginning in 1833, "grew more or less continuously from nothing."179 Ireland inherited a variety of schools operated by Protestant religious societies, many of them proselytizing and a few sub- sidized by Parliament; a modest number of Sunday schools; and the Ro- man Catholic religious society